Saturday, May 23, 2020

Business-to-consumer e-commerce - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 13 Words: 4049 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Introduction: The long-term prosperity of business-to-consumer e-commerce depends upon the existence of consumers confidence and the availability of adequate supporting legal framework with effective means of enforcement. Because of the technological development e-commerce industry is growing with enormous speed. Majority of consumers prefer to buy products online and make electronic transactions with companies situated outside their national boundaries. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Business-to-consumer e-commerce" essay for you Create order The expansive use of e-commerce and the existence of complex legal framework necessitate that efforts should be made to introduce new means of enforcing Business to Consumer e-contracts and disputes resolution across state borders. This research work will mainly concentrate upon the existing issues in enforcing business to consumer e-contracts across national borders. These include the issue of jurisdiction, the issue of applicable law and the issue of enforcement. Furthermore it will evaluate thoroughly the need for new means of disputes resolution in cross border B2C e-commerce transactions. It will further assess the potentials of B2C e-commerce disputes resolution through internal complaint handling mechanism and direct contact with business. It will also evaluate the Alternative Dispute Resolution mechanisms, such as facilitative ADR, Advisory ADR, Determinative ADR, Combined ADR etc and will recommend how these forms of disputes resolution can be effectively implemented on national level and to be of binding nature. basic principle such as equality, fair treatment, affordability, Awareness about the ADR principles, accessibility to ADR mechanism, finality and rapidness of ADR process, and objectives of ADR. The research work will further analyse the concept of ADR in legal perspective and will suggest that what efforts should be made on international, regional and national level to promote the use and development of ADR, particularly in disputes arising out of cross-border transactions. It will take into consideration various legislative and other legal instruments i.e. European Union Directive on Electronic Commerce, OECD E-commerce Guidelines, European Commission Recommendations 1998, European Commission Recommendations 2001, International Chamber of Commerce best practices, ADR Guidelines 2003, International Consumer groups and International Businesses groups, and EEJ-NET etc and will suggest if necessary amendments are needed. The research work will also focus on the current obstacles in the expansion of ADR mechanism, such as unawareness of businesses and consumers of ADR process and its benefits, Lack of trained and educated specialist in dispute resolution, cultural and linguistic issues Due to cross-border nature of e-commerce, and jurisdictional and procedural issues resulting from the multi-national nature of e-commerce etc. Moreover this research will propose certain recommendations that how the current obstacles may be removed to paved a way for an effective dispute resolution system, compatible with the need of time, such as making of legislation on international, regional and national level to determine the issue of jurisdiction, applicable law and enforcement of judgement, making efforts by the governments to create awareness and educate people about the effective means of enforcing their rights and resolving disputes, the creation of independent bodies and institutions on international, regional and national level to deal with e-contracts enforcement and disputes resolution, the encouragement of both traditional and modern mechanisms of disputes resolution, the availability of internal complaint handling department in every business etc. Aim and objectives: The main aim of this study is to evaluate the existing issues in cross-border Business-to-Consumers ecommerce transactions. Specifically the research focuses on judicial obstacles, such as the issue of jurisdiction, applicable law, and enforcement. This study further suggests that what could be the best alternatives to address these issues and increase consumers confidence in online shopping. Hypothesis: According to my hypothesis the following are the main issues inherent in resolving business-to-consumers cross-borders ecommerce disputes. Issue of jurisdiction: The first and the most important issue in B2C ecommerce dispute is the issue of Jurisdiction. When a consumer in one country purchase a product online in another country and subsequently a dispute arises between the parties and consumer wants to seek judicial remedy, than in such case a question arises that which court is having territorial jurisdiction to entertain the matter. Applicable law: The matter of applicable law in ecommerce is another considerable issue. It is very difficult to determine that under which legal system or under what law the matter should be dealt with. Issue of enforcement: The issue of enforcement also needs to be addressed. In resolving business-to-consumers ecommerce dispute it is unclear that how and where the judgement may be enforced. Literature review: Literature review literally means a review of whatever has already been written by different scholars about the existing research topic, and than to demonstrate that the existing research is deficient and needs some supplementing. In todays advance technology the use of ecommerce is increasing. Between 2004 and 2008, in EU the use of shopping through internet increased from 22% to 34%. In the UK in 2008, 57% consumers did online shopping, in Germany, Denmark and Netherlands the figure remained above 50%. In Estonia, Cyprus, Greece, Italy and Portugal the figure was respectively 10%, while in Romania and Bulgaria it was about 4%. Although e-commerce is increasing at national level, it is still comparatively unusual for consumers to participate in cross-borders transactions. Consequently the gape between interstate and cross-border e-commerce is expanding. From 2006 to 2008, in EU the figure of online consumers increased from 27% to 33% while cross-border e-commerce remained still at 6% to 7%. On national level laws that apply to traditional or off line commerce apply equally in an electronic environment. For instance laws governing business incorporation, registration, taxation, consumer protection, deceptive advertising, product safety and standards, criminal code, inter-provincial trade treaties, intellectual property and liability apply on the internet. But when the matter goes beyond the territorial boundaries and involves another state than the situation changes completely and gives rise to uncertainty and ambiguity. In an ordinary civil matter the territorial jurisdiction of civil court may be determined on three factors i.e. where the parties reside, where the cause of action arises or where the property is situated. But when any dispute arises out of any electronic transaction that takes place across national borders, the first question arises that which court is having jurisdiction to entertain the matter. So it is very difficult to decide the jurisdiction and competency of the court. For instance, it is if an issue arises out of cross-border e-commerce transaction and the consumer wants to seek judicial remedy than in that case whether the court of consumers country will entertain the matter or it will come under the territorial jurisdiction of the court where the business is situated. According to Scott Cooper, in resolving cross-border complaints it is very difficult to determine the matter of jurisdiction. Consumers are confident to resort to the courts of the countries where the businesses are based and in return the businesses will not be keen regarding trans-border transactions that could subject them to the reach of every country where there online customers resides. Scott Cooper further states that different levels have been established by different governments to protect and enforce consumer rights, but there are no international documents or agreements to determine the fact that which country is having jurisdiction to deal with cross-border B2C dispute. Furthermore it is also very difficult to determine that under which legal system or under what law the matter should be resolved. There is no apparent legislation to conclude that whether the law of consumers state will apply or the matter should be governed by the law of the state where the business is based or it should be dealt with by an international legal system on uniform basis irrespective of geographic location. Similarly it is also unclear that how and where the judgement regarding the subject matter may be enforced. According to Chin Eang Ong in a traditional marketplace, consumers knows means of enforcing their rights, but in electronic marketplace in an online transaction, delegating liability and providing access for redress might be a problem for consumers. A transaction is curable when it takes place within a single jurisdiction i.e. access to local court, but e-commerce is borderless and recourse to courts in any cross-border electronic transaction is complicated by difficulty jurisdiction over such dispute and the applicable law. According to Mohamed S. Wahab because of technological advancement transactions are taking place in an online environment across national borders, where disputes are inevitable. Some of these disputes are unique to the e-commerce environment. Therefore it needs an effective mechanism of dispute resolution. Keeping in view the existing obstacles in resolving business-to-consumer cross-border e-commerce disputes resolution it is inevitable to consider substitute means to protect the rights of the parties and encourage them to participate in cross-border e-commerce. Some international and regional organizations have proposed that cross-border e-commerce disputes should be resolved through internal complaint system. For instance the OECD ecommerce guidelines, the UN guidelines, and the Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation Voluntary Online Consumer Protection guidelines recommend the establishment of fair, effective and transparent internal mechanisms for businesses and consumers representatives in order to address consumer complaints and resolve their queries in fair and timely manner without imposing undue burden or cost upon consumers. When dispute between the parties can not be resolved through internal complaint handling mechanism than the parties should be given access to Alternative Dispute Resolution, as it can offer timely, efficient and cost-effective instrument to resolve cross-border disputes. Alternative Disputes Resolution is a mechanism other than judicial determination, whereby disputes are resolved through the medium of impartial third party by adopting different ways and means. When ADR takes place through internet than it is called Online Disputes Resolution. There is an extensive choice of ADR mechanisms. The most commonly used mechanisms are arbitration, mediation and negotiation. National Alternative Dispute Resolution Advisory Council (NADRAC) uses the term ADR in a broader sense. According to NADRAC submission ADR mechanisms is consist of facilitative ADR, advisory ADR, determinative ADR, and some time the combination of these mechanisms. According to UN report, the main challenge in e-commerce industry is how to resolve cross-border e-commerce disputes. Traditional methods of resolving disputes may not provide an efficient and effective remedy; therefore there is a need for considering alternative means that would provide speedy and cost efficient redress to the parties. Dr. Moira Patterson has adopted the same view. She states that there are two issues involved in e-commerce i.e. which law should govern cross-border transaction and that such transactions should either be subjected to national laws or should be dealt with by international instruments. In such circumstances Alternative Disputes Resolution offers a cost-effective and speedy solution through the medium of third party. According to Lilian Edwards and Caroline Wilson, Online Dispute resolution introduces very powerful and efficient tools for dispute resolution and increases access to redress mechanisms. ODR is an efficient, fast, and cheap way of dispute resolution, Court costs are beyond the means of most consumers and takes twenty to thirty months, while ODR process may take few hours or days. To look at the concept of Alternative Disputes Resolution in legal perspective, efforts have been made on international, regional and national level to encourage the use and development of Alternative Dispute Resolution, particularly in disputes arising out of cross-border transactions. But they do not have any binding effects. It is a discretionary option for the states to apply and adopt them in their national laws. For instance, Art 17 of the EU Directive on Electronic Commerce deals with out-of-court dispute settlement. The Article imposes responsibility upon member states to support those bodies that are responsible for out-of-court disputes settlement of consumer to operate in a way which provides sufficient practical guarantees for the concerned parties. And that the member states shall ensure that their legislation does not obstruct the use of out-of-court methods, accessible under the state law, for dispute settlement. According to OECD E-commerce Guidelines, consumers should be given access to fair and timely ADR and remedy without undue cost or burden. And that Businesses, consumer representatives and governments should work jointly to continue to use and develop just, efficient, and transparent self-regulatory and other strategies and measures, including ADR mechanisms, to address consumer complaints and resolve their disputes arising out of Business-to-consumer electronic commerce in cross-border transactions. Similarly the European Commission issued recommendations in 1998 which prescribes principles of independence, transparency, adversarial proceedings, effectiveness, legality, liberty, and representation for out-of-court consumers disputes settlement. Furthermore Recommendations issued by European Commission in 2001 governs out-of-court procedures which lead to a settlement between the parties by common consent. It prescribes four principles i.e. impartiality, transparency, effectiveness, and fairness of procedure in-order to encourage consumers confidence in e-commerce and to ensure easy access to practical, effective, and inexpensive means of redress. Moreover the International Chamber of Commerce has issued best practices for ODR. It provides guidance for online businesses and for ODR providers. It encourages businesses to resolve consumer disputes through the medium of Online Disputes Resolution mechanism when the matter can not be resolved internally. ADR Guidelines 2003 agreed between Consumers International and the Global Business Dialogue on Electronic Commerce. These guidelines prescribe recommendations for ADR providers on impartiality and qualification of personnel, accessibility and convenience, speed, cost, transparency, representation, applicable rules and consumer awareness. It also recommends to governments to address international rules on jurisdiction and applicable law and to adopt different measures to promote increased use and development of ADR. Methodology: In research methodology I will pursue triangulation method by adopting both quantitative (questionnaires) and qualitative (interviews) research methodologies. The main reason behind using various methods of research is that it facilitates the validation of data through cross verification from more than two sources. In particular it refers to the application and combination of several research methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon. Sampling: In selecting my respondents I will use both probability sampling method and non-probability sampling method. In probability sampling method I will choose my respondents from a list of potential people that I will use for primary data collection. Such list will be obtained from an existing database of a research organization such as IPSOS MORI. In non-probability sampling method I will question or interview any one who is available. This method is very quick and cost efficient. Method of data collection: For collecting primary data I will use two methods, which are questionnaire and interviews. I will also consult a research organization such as IPSOS MORI, for collecting data for my research work. Questionnaire: For collecting data through questionnaires first of all I will select my target group to be examined through questionnaire. For this purpose I will adopt probability and non-probability sampling methods as mentioned above in sampling section. For questionnaire distribution I will use three methods i.e. sending emails, using postal services and onsite distribution by going to particular places i.e. supermarkets, travel centres to distribute the questions among randomly selected individuals. I will also get in touch with various businesses that are involved in cross borders E-commerce and will analyse their procedure for resolving B2C E-commerce disputes through the medium of questionnaire and conducting interviews. In current research work I have conducted a pilot research to make sure that the questions that will be asked in my actual dissertation are answerable and that the methods that will be used are workable in practical sense. I have distributed 50 questionnaires among the students in Bradford College. The response of the participants was very high and positive. The questions used in questionnaires were quite simple, which I will improve further by making amendments and improvements in my dissertation stage. A sample of questionnaire is attached at the end of this research proposal in appendix 1. Interviews: Interview is the most popular technique of qualitative research. It is very useful because of its flexibility, both in terms of content and time and can be tailored to suit the research questions, respondents, and the researchers own life style much more effectively. The use of interview can help the researcher to gather valid and reliable data that are relevant to the research question and objectives. For collecting data I will use face-to-face interviews, as it is a useful method of data collection and is used by most of the researchers because body language and emotions of the participant can also be studied which is a fundamental factor for a qualitative researcher. I will also use phone interviews and e-mail interviews. Interview will be semi structured and unstructured, and the questions may either be already prepared on a peace of paper or they may be generated during the interview process. There will be in-depth interviews with the participants in order to collect as much information as possible regarding the research topic. If the participants are having any difficulty in understanding the questions I will clarify and explain the question. I can also use opinion poll method to find out public opinion, by making a random selection from the general public. In my current research proposal I have interviewed 15 people in order to check the response and effectiveness of conducting interviews. The response I got from the participants was high but the result obtained from interviews was different from questionnaire although the interview questions were almost similar to the questionnaires. In order to get similar results I will make changes in interview questions to improve the quality and response rate and to make it more attractive for the respondents. A summary of interviews is attached at the end of this proposal in appendix 2. Secondary Data: I will also use secondary data in my research work. In order to conduct my research work effectively I will use different library services to access books, scholarly articles, journals and magazines relating to the research topic. For collecting relevant data I will use internet to access online libraries, electronic books and other online materials. I will also make efforts to study case law in the field of E-commerce to find out that how the courts deal with the matters and to look at the courts procedure about resolving e-commerce disputes and will compare them with out of court settlement methods. Data analysis: Data analysis is a continuous procedure during the whole research. The analysis starts from the point where the researcher and the participants are in close relation for the first time during a research process. For data analysis previous knowledge and experience of the researcher is of vital importance in order to get effective results. Data analysis is an important part of the research, where the researcher prepares the data for analysis. Once a data is analysed it is interpreted and than converted into a final report. The traditional methods of data analysis are now replaced by computer software available in the market. As I have selected questionnaire and interview as my primary data collection process, therefore the questionnaire and interview questions will be prepared in such manners that the acquired result obtained from them is valid and reliable, so that the same results can be gained when the research is repeated subsequently. Triangulation method is used in this research methodology because the data collected can be compared from different angles to get the accurate results for the research. Conclusion: After a detailed study of e-commerce and the existence of certain problems i.e. problem of jurisdiction, applicable law and enforcement of judgement, it is therefore apparent and inevitable for building up consumers confidence and e-commerce development that new means of enforcing B2C e-contracts should be adopted. As obvious from the literature review there are no uniform legal principles and legislation on international, regional and national level regulating disputes arising out of e-commerce transaction that takes place across state-borders. There are no binding principles to compel the parties to perform their part of obligation. Similarly literature review further indicates that efforts have been made by different governments and organizations to escalate the problem of enforcing B2C e-contracts and to resolve disputes that arising out of cross-border transaction, but they are only guidelines and voluntary principles of non-binding nature. Although new means of enforcing B2C e-contracts and disputes resolution across state borders are in practice i.e. ADR/ODR, but there are a number of obstacles in developing these mechanisms, such as non-awareness of consumers about ADR, non-availability of independent ADR practitioners, linguistic and cultural differences, distance between the parties. All these barriers need proper and positive response from governments, different organizations and private sector. New ways and means need to be introduce in order to increase consumers confidence in cross-border e-commerce because traditional means of dispute resolution such as court proceedings and other administrative actions are very expensive and time consuming, particularly in small value claims. Therefore it can be concluded that to resolve cross-borders e-commerce disputes it is inevitable to adopt, strengthen and support new means of disputes resolution on international, regional and national level to provide an effective, timely and cost-effective system to build up consumers confidence and develop e-commerce. Lee, N., Lings, I. (2008) Doing Business Research, A Guide to Theory and Practice. SAGE Publications, 2008, p80 Commission Of The European Communities, Report on cross-border e-commerce in the EU, Commission Staff Working Document, Brussels, 5.3.2009, SEC(2009) 283 final, p5 Commission Of The European Communities, Report on cross-border e-commerce in the EU, Commission Staff Working Document, Brussels, 5.3.2009, SEC(2009) 283 final, p6 Key e-commerce Regulatory Issues, An EBC Guide to Taxation, Security and Privacy, E-export and Legal Issues Commission Of The European Communities, Report on cross-border e-commerce in the EU, Commission Staff Working Document, Brussels, 5.3.2009, SEC(2009) 283 final, p5 Commission Of The European Communities, Report on cross-border e-commerce in the EU, Commission Staff Working Document, Brussels, 5.3.2009, SEC(2009) 283 final, p5 Ong, C.E. (2003) B2C E-commerce Trust in Redress Mechanism (Cross Border Issue) Monash University, Bandar Sunway, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia A new Dawn for dispute resolution, the Global Information Society and online dispute resolution, 9/21/2006, Muhammad S. Wahab OECD Guidelines for Consumer Protection in the Context of Electronic Commerce (1999) United Nations Guidelines for Consumer Protection, United Nations New York, 2003 Asian-pacific, Advancing Free Trade for Asia-pacific Prosperity, Economic Cooperation, Electronic Commerce Steering Group The term Arbitration refers to a process or a legal technique whereby a dispute is resolved outside the court through the medium of arbitrators. This mechanism is very useful in resolving disputes arising out of international commercial transaction. Mediation is a process whereby an impartial third party facilitates communication between consumer and business. Mediator tries to enable the parties to reach a settlement. Negotiation is an interaction of influences. It includes the process of resolving disputes, agreeing upon courses of action, bargaining for collective or individual advantage, or crafting outcomes to satisfy various interests. Submission on ADR in e-commerce, by National Alternative Disputes Resolution Advisory Council, p2 E-commerce and Development Report, 2003, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Internet edition prepared by the UNCTAD secretariat, United Nations, New York and Geneva, 2003, UNCTAD/SIDTE/ECB/2003/1 Dr. Patterson, M. (2001) An Australian Free Trade Agreement- Opportunities Challenges, Hyatt Hotel, Canberra, Session 4b, Infoeconomy issue, E-commerce Law, Law School Monash University Edward, L., Wilson, C. (2006) Redress Alternative Dispute Resolution in Cross-Border E-commerce Transactions, Briefing Note, IP/A/IMCO/IC/2006-206, p3 Directive 2000/31/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of June 2000, on certain legal aspects of information society services, in particular electronic commerce, in the internal market (Directive on electronic commerce), Article 17 OECD Guidelines for consumer protection in the context of electronic commerce, p 18 98/257/EC: Commission Recommendation of 30 March 1998 on the principles applicable to the bodies responsible for out-of-court settlement of consumer disputes, official journal of European Communities Commission Recommendations of 4 April 2001 on the principles for out-of-court bodies involving in the consensual resolution of consumer disputes, Official Journal of European Communities ICC best practices for Online Disputes Resolution for B2C and C2C transactions, Department of policy and business practices, commission on e-Business, IT and Telecom Alternative Dispute Resolution Guidelines, May, 2003, Agreement reached between Consumers International and the Global Business Dialogue on Electronic Commerce Bogdan, R.C. Biklen, S.K. (2006) Qualitative Research in Education: An introduction to theory and methods, Allyn Bacon Lee, N., Lings I. (2008) Doing Business Research, A Guide to Theory and Practice, SAGE Publications, p 217 aunders, M et al. (2007) Research Methods for Business Students, Prentice Hall, 4th Edition, p310

Monday, May 18, 2020

Thomas Aquinas Work to Prove the Existence of God Essays

Being a devout Christian, Thomas Aquinas naturally believed in God, but he wanted to prove Gods existence to those who could not accept things on faith alone. As a result he made five proofs, which he claims, prove the existence of God. With each proof there is always a beginning, a starting point, Aquinas claims it must be God that is the beginning of each. The first proof does not do complete justice to Aquinas’s claim that God exist, while the fifth proof could be used alone to prove Gods existence. One of Aquinas’s proofs is based on the idea of a first mover and another is based on the idea that intelligence is necessary to direct non-intelligent objects. St. Thomas Aquinas first argument tries to prove that there must be a†¦show more content†¦We also see that non-intelligent things cannot move toward their end unless directed by an intelligent being. As an example, St. Thomas Aquinas uses an arrow. An arrow will not achieve its purpose (that of reaching its mark) unless directed to do so by an archer. Obviously, humans are the intelligent beings that direct the small objects of our world, but there must be a greater intelligence that directs the larger bodies of the universe, such as the stars and the planets, since we obviously have no control over them. This higher intelligence is what we call God. These two arguments approach the problem of proving Gods existence in two completely different ways. One goes the route of saying there must be something that started everything, and the other says there must be something that controls the things that are here, even if it did not create them. Both of these arguments seem, at first, to be good and valid in their separate approaches. However, the first does have one major flaw. St. Thomas Aquinas says that the line of movers cannot go on to infinity, which common sense would tell you to be true. He thus establishes the arbitrary endpoint of God. The problem is that this argument could always be tested to be false by asking the question, What Moved God? St. Thomas Aquinas would probably answer that nothing moved God because God has always existed. I personally believe this to be true, but, to prove his first argument, St. ThomasShow MoreRelatedSt. Thomas Aquinas Essay823 Words   |  4 PagesSt. Thomas Aquinas, was a Dominican monk, wh o generally one of the greatest Scholastic writers of all times. He used ancient philosophy to prove religious propositions. One of the ancient philosophers that St. Thomas Aquinas used to prove religious facts was Aristotle. One of the greatest works that Aristotle did was to prove that god really exists. St. Thomas Aquinas used the forms that Aristotle and Plato used to prove the same philosophical question, does god really exist? St. Thomas AquinasRead MoreThomas Aquinas vs. Descarates Essays673 Words   |  3 PagesTHOMAS AQUINA’S V. DESCARATES Meditation III Several hundred years ago, two great philosophers Thomas Aquinas’s and Rene Descartes used the method of ontological argument for the existence of God and used intuition and reason alone to get to each other’s theory. Rene Descartes wrote out several mediations, but the one we’re going to touch base on is meditation III that he wrote in the 1600’s; While Thomas Aquinas’s wrote his five proofs of God in 1270 that specifies God’s existence in each proof;Read MoreA Brief Analysis of Saint Thomas Aquinas Essay example1285 Words   |  6 PagesSaint Thomas was born in 1225 and he came from a noble family from Naples, Italy. His work caused extreme controversially in his time. He is known for his greatest work Summa Theologiae. Saint Thomas Aquinas used scientific reasoning and logic to explain the concept of God. Thomas Aquinas setup the framework of this discussion as a question of whether or not God exists. Saint Thomas Aquinas theorized that the five different arguments could be used to prove the existence of God. Saint Thomas AquinasRead MoreThe Achievements of Saint Thomas Aquainas Essay630 Words   |  3 PagesSaint Thomas Aquinas (1225-1272) is fundamentally an Aristotelian, and for some, one of the greatest philosophers, and one of the best theologians. His theological writings became regulative of the Catholic Church and his commentaries on Aristotle, represents a great cultural resource, which are now receiving a greater recognition. As a very catholic man, he tried to prove the existence of God. But How? Thomas Aquinas recognized that there were people who doubted the existence of God. BecauseRead MoreThe Italian Kingdom Of Sicily1363 Words   |  6 PagesMedieval period witnessed the rise of the religious movement which was lead by Thomas Aquinas who invented the Thomistic way of thought which was based around Medieval scholasticism. He revolutionized the catholic church beginning in 1245 when he moved to Paris and studied under Albertus the Great. I am a monk who studies in a monastery similar to one that Thomas Aquinas studied in his earlier years. I, like Aquinas, was originally a Benedictine monk who realized the wrongs associated with livingRead MoreThe Five Ways Of The Existence Of God1557 Words   |  7 Pagesanalyze â€Å"The Five Ways†, from Summa Theologica, by Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274). We cannot prove that God exists, merely by considering the word God, for that strategy work, we would have to presume to know God s essence. According to Aquinas, the existence of God can be proved. This paper will discuss what each of the five ways are that Thomas Aquinas introduced to show the existence of God. The Argument from Change: To begin with, one way to prove that God exists is to contemplate the fact that naturalRead MoreSt. Thomas Aquinas On The Existence Of God1048 Words   |  5 PagesSt. Thomas Aquinas is considered to be one of the greatest minds of the western world as well as one of the greatest theologians. In his work Summa Theologica, which he revised many times over the course of his life, he explored the existence of God, and there are essentially five ways in which St. Thomas Aquinas argues the existence of God. The first way is the argument from change, the second way is the argument from causation, the third argument is the argument from possibility and necessity,Read MoreThe Natural Law Theory Essay examples1037 Words   |  5 Pagesonly be obtained by following the natural law theory. God created a set of laws as a supreme guide for humans to live life, like any law these laws were created to ensure wellbeing for everyone. The laws he created are the civil law, the natural law and the divine law God created them from a law much superior than the rest, one which only God himself has the knowledge of, the eternal law. Humans actively participate in the eternal law of God by using reason in conformity with the Natural Law to discernRead MoreSt. Thomas Aquinas Essay898 Words   |  4 PagesOwen Zimmermann 11-20-11 Mrs.Donofree Rel. Pd. B St. Thomas Aquinas Saint Thomas Aquinas was a philosopher, theologian, Doctor of the Catholic Church, and is the patron saint of Catholic Universities, colleges, and schools. He was born in Rocca Secca, Italy, in 1225 and was born into a wealthy family. He even was related to the kings of Aragon, Castile, and France. His journey into Catholic beliefs seemed predestined, for he was told when he was a young child that he would becomeRead MoreThe Lifelong Goal Of Saint Thomas Aquinas1692 Words   |  7 PagesRyan Comolli Study Of St. Thomas Aquinas Research Paper 11/23/2014 The lifelong goal of Saint Thomas Aquinas was to clearly elaborate the independence of philosophy and theology, but at the same time show their symbiotic relationship with each other. Throughout his life Aquinas was known as a theologian but many of his works carry strong philosophical undertones as well. The beauty of theology is it can enlighten us through its leap of faith. Philosophy was required to precede theology.

Monday, May 11, 2020

The Influence of History on American Literature Essay

â€Å"A Tale Intended to be After the Fact†¦Ã¢â‚¬  is how Stephan Crane introduced his harrowing story, â€Å"The Open Boat,† but this statement also shows that history influences American Literature. Throughout history, there has been a connection among literary works from different periods. The connection is that History, current events, and social events have influenced American Literature. Authors, their literary works, and the specific writing styles; are affected and influenced by the world around them. Authors have long used experiences they have lived through and/or taken out of history to help shape and express in their works. Writing styles are also affected by the current trends and opinions of the period they represent. By reading American†¦show more content†¦Regionalism and local color writings are each specific types of Realism. They worked to record a distinctive way of life. Regionalism often showed regional dialect, food, clothing styles and c ustoms of that time period. Naturalism, like realism, works to accurately portray its subject matter, but naturalism also works to find the scientific theory. Each of these writing styles have characteristics that make them stand out from one another but they all seem to also have a common link of showing life realistically of that time period. It is easy to see that current events and issues of the world around them have had an impact on authors and what they have written from the stories in this time period. The Native American authors wrote stories describing life during and after white man came to America. We read Oratory’s by two Native American’s COCHISE and CHARLOT. They gave heart-wrenching speeches, giving great details into the history of the tribes and the devastating effect the white man had on them. Author Zitkala Sa gave us a powerful interpretation of her life as a Indian and how the white’s coming to America affected her life. The African-American authors of this time period wrote stories describing life during and after slavery. Real life issues that these authors lived through and experienced through the world around them. The excerpts that we read of Booker T. Washington’s â€Å"Up From Slavery,† told a compelling tale of his life of being born intoShow MoreRelatedNative American And American Literature Essay1351 Words   |  6 PagesIn all my years of studying literature while living in America, I have only one memory of ever having read anything Native American, and that was in grade school. Native American literature is typically left out of studies in general American Literature, although there do exist plenty of programs for studying these types of narratives separately and individually. It has yet to become a prominent area of study and there a differing reasons as to why this is. Part of the lack of study in this subjectRead MorePlymouth Plantation By Jonathan Edwards And Willia m Bradford Essay1473 Words   |  6 Pagesmain influence from history has been from a religious standpoint. Common religious beliefs have been ingrained into our government bodies and even into our every day culture and tendencies. Religion has made a major impact on American lively hood since the early days of settlement. Due to Americas strong religious ties, religion has been ingrained in our literature, influencing and directing our culture. The writers Jonathan Edwards and William Bradford have had a major influence on American cultureRead MoreThe Effect of Cultural and Historical Situations on American Literature 1173 Words   |  5 PagesProfessor Brattoli †American literature is almost always tied to historical and social events of the era in which it was written.† There is a connection between literary works from different time periods. This connection is how history, current events and social events have impacted American Literature. Literary works and writing styles have been affected and influence by the world around us. This is seen in many of the works assigned forRead MoreRegionalisms Impacts on America, Especially The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain651 Words   |  3 Pageswith unique settings and accents. In American literature, Regionalism was invented to better convey the aspects of one region in a novel. Regionalisms impact on America can be measured through its popularity in the 1930s, unique writing style, and ongoing influence on writers today (Brooks 1960). According to the Oxford Dictionary, Regionalism refers to Regional quality, character, or distinctiveness; regionality; esp. the expression of this in literature, art, etc.(Oxford Dictionary, 2014) WhileRead MoreColonial American Literature844 Words   |  4 Pages1492 and goes through 1763. In the two hundred and seventy-one years, Europeans came to America, Native Americans began to focus on the fur trade, and by the end of the time period the â€Å"population of the thirteen colonies was over two million people.† (Colonial Time Period NP) All of those events helped shape the American Literature that is still read in High Schools to this day. American Literature from the colonial period was influenced by many historical events. It shares common characteristics andRead MoreBlack Writers of the 20th Century Essay975 Words   |  4 PagesLiterature has played an important role in society throughout history, the written word being a powerful tool in communicating ideas. This became even more important during the 20th century, when many people were trying to persuade others or share their emotions and histories. The black movements in the United States made use of this tool, many authors coming out and becoming part of the fabric of society. Three authors in particular, Ralph Ellison, Langston Hughes, and Richard Wright became someRead MoreNew Negro Essay984 Words   |  4 PagesThe abolition of slavery in the United States presented southern African Americans with many new opportunities, including the option of relocation in search of better living conditions. The mass movement of black people from the rural areas of the South to the cities of the North, known as the Black Migration, came in the 1890s when black men and women left the south to settle in cities such as Philadelphia and New York, fleeing from the rise of Jim Crowe Laws and searching for work. This migrationRead MoreThe Negro Movement1364 Words   |  6 Pagesat the history of the cult ure that has risen from the ashes; one may be quite surprised just how far the African American culture has come. The progression of the African American culture is indeed one to be proud of. From cotton fields to Harlem, â€Å"The New Negro Movement†, sparked a sense of cultural self-determination, with a yearning to strive for economic, political equality, and civic participation. This was a movement that sparked a wide range of advancements in the African American cultureRead MoreBig Influence On American Culture Essay1738 Words   |  7 Pagesand merchandise. The comics have a big influence on American culture ever since the 1940’s. Ever since then comics have an impact on the way people do, and see things. An example is the first comic cover of Captain America punching Hitler in the face. That cover showed that anyone could be a hero and that it was reflecting current events of the time by showing that America was in World War 2. Comic book superheroes have ma de a huge difference on what American culture is ever since their first appearanceRead More`` The Legend Of Sleepy Hollow `` : How Did Irving And Sedgwick Use American History?1520 Words   |  7 Pagesnature there abode, in a remote period of American history, that is to say, some thirty years since, a worthy wight of the name of Ichabod Crane† (Washington Irving, â€Å"The Legend of Sleepy Hollow†, 1820). How did Irving and Sedgwick use American history in their writings? Well into the early 19th Century the idea of ‘The American’ was far reserved from what we recognize now, due in a large part to the the lack of a credible sense of culture and history emitted from the settlers. Whilst the Revolution

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Could You Imagine Consecutively Running For An Hour And

Could you imagine consecutively running for an hour and a half just for an exhilarating moment, maybe once or twice throughout the whole game. This soccer subculture loves the game and would do everything they can to prosper. You don’t perceive a soccer team being a subculture, but many don’t know the rituals and the hard work put behind it. Interviewing people from distinctive views of soccer helps get a better understanding of how certain people from recreational league to college think about soccer. With soccer being more of an international sport, most Americans don’t know about the culture or where soccer originally came from, this will allow a lot of Americans to almost learn a special background and value this sport from more a†¦show more content†¦(thoughtCo 2017) What do you know about Soccer? What are the basics? Anyone can study something about anything if they understand the fundamentals of what it is. Why would you play a game for 90 minutes with barely any reward other than maybe 2 or 3 goals the whole game? In order to play this game, it takes discipline, if you were to mess up numerous times throughout the game, it could be the difference in winning or losing just similar to any other sports game. Being able to participate in a numerous amount of sports personally is a great milestone. From contributing in so many sports, I have not played or tried to participate in the sport. Being an outsider, I could absorb so much about not only the activity, but the culture of the and how they interact within the subculture. I recognize very simple rules of soccer only because of the video game FIFA, which is a very enjoyable game, but does not explain any basics or rules of soccer whatsoever. Ashton Adams, who plays for the Women’s soccer team at. Georgia Southern says â€Å"I just love the thrill it gives me. I know most people think soccer is boring and not much goes on, but it’s just understanding the game and a team as a whole striving for one goal.† (Adams 2017) Getting a different perspective on playing I asked Jacob Vaiden who is freshman and has gone through his first season. â€Å"So competitive and with it being a low scoring game whenever you score it’s such a big deal andShow MoreRelatedThe Brain Is A Remarkable Muscle Essay1213 Words   |  5 Pageshuman mind thinks between 60,000 – 80,000 thoughts a day. That’s an average of 2500 – 3,300 thoughts per hour (Sasson). That means that the average person has approximately 275 thoughts in 5 minutes’ time. Even when at rest the human brain is working. When we’re sleeping, the brain is anything but inactive. In fact, during sleep, neurons in the bra in fire nearly as much as they do during waking hours (Gergoire). Even during times of meditation one’s brain is working and thinking. It seems that thereRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words   |  1056 Pagesmultiple study paths, to self-assessment, to a wealth of interactive visual and audio resources, WileyPLUS gives you everything you need to personalize the teaching and learning experience.  » F i n d o u t h ow t o M A K E I T YO U R S  » ALL THE HELP, RESOURCES, AND PERSONAL SUPPORT YOU AND YOUR STUDENTS NEED! 2-Minute Tutorials and all of the resources you your students need to get started Student support from an experienced student userRead MoreExploring Corporate Strategy - Case164366 Words   |  658 Pagescollection of teaching material. They have been chosen (or speciï ¬ cally written) to provide readers with a core of cases which, together, cover most of the main issues in the text. As such, they should provide a useful backbone to a programme of study but could sensibly be supplemented by other material. We have provided a mixture of longer and shorter cases to increase the ï ¬â€šexibility for teachers. Combined with the illustrations and the short case examples at the end of each chapter (in both versions ofRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pagesc.e. arrived, and there were several points both before the year 2000 (the collapse of the Soviet Union, the reunification of Germany, the surge of globalization from the mid-1990s) and afterward (9/11, or the global recession of 2008) when one could quite plausibly argue that a new era had begun. A compelling case can be made for viewing the decades of the global scramble for colonies after 1870 as a predictable culmination of the long nineteenth century, which was ushered in by the industrial

Para maka gawa lang Free Essays

It is a good practice to have a good hygiene. Though centers would usually have maintenance, prevention is still better than cure. Working in a call center would usually affect the social life of an agent as well due to the drastic change of schedule, and that may arise to conflicts in work and performance as well. We will write a custom essay sample on Para maka gawa lang or any similar topic only for you Order Now Global, formerly known as veldt Events Inc. The headquarters of the company is in Magmata City operating in 30 locations. Their areas served are North America, Europe, and Asia-Pacific. Currently this year, Sip Global has been held as the â€Å"Best Employer of the Year† in the International CIT Awards. Working in a call center has always had its draw backs for the past century, when BOP (Business Process Outsourcing) was being catered by business firms from other countries. And here in the Philippines, we usually encounter business men from the west countries due to the differences in â€Å"Labor Cost† compared to their country. That is why people from SIP Global would have a sense of opportunity since they are working locally but for a company that is outside of the country. Business trips are sometimes given by clients to the managerial team of the LOB or Line of Business. In any call center company, SIP Global had some fare share of experience when it comes to labor management since the company has run for over 34 years running. And we can note that there are main problems that Sip Global encounters. Some common problems within a call center industry would be Agent Absenteeism which directly is affected by work schedules that are sometimes forced by the management that is in contrary to the agent’s liking. Another would be Staff Attrition. Since by default, agents know that there are a lot of call centers out there, they would find the one that suits to them. One factor is the schedule which the agent prefers, if it is for a day schedule or going to work at night shift for the Hazard/ Night differential pay. These 2 notable habits of a usual agent are directly affected by work schedule, thus would always result on the same ending. This study will determine the effects of work schedule to the work performance and health conditions of a call center worker or agent at SIP Global. Specifically, it tends to respond to the following queries: 1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of: 1. 1 Age 1. 2 Gender 1. 3 Marital status 1. Education 2. The concerns that you encounter due to your schedule: 2. 1 Social life 2. 2 Family 2. 3 school 2. 4 Curricular activities OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The study has the following objectives to attain the thesis entitled â€Å"The effects of work schedule to the work performance and health conditions of a call center worker or agent at SIP Global† to find out how work schedules affect an employee in SIP Global. These are the following objectives that the researchers would like to attain: To determine the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of age, gender, marital status and educational background To determine the effects of work schedule to the work performance and health conditions that may affect social life, family, school and other curricular activities. To determine what other alternatives can the agents do to avoid the effects on their health and work performance with a difficult schedule. Traditionally, absenteeism has been viewed as an indicator of poor individual performance, as well as a breach of an implicit contract between employee and employer; it was seen as a management problem, and framed in economic or quasi- economic terms. Attrition – are reduction in the number of employees or participants that occurs hen people leave because they resign, retire, etc. , and are not replaced. Labor Cost – is a part of wage-bill or payroll that can be specifically and consistently assigned to or associated with the manufacture of a product, a particular work order, or provision of a service. Firms – are typically associated with business organizations that practice law, but the term can be used for a wide variety or business operation units. Habit – is a routine of behavior that is repeated regularly and tends to occur unconsciously. – Business process outsourcing is a subset of outsourcing that involves he contracting of the operations and responsibilities of specific business functions (or processes) to a third-party service provider. LOB – Line of Business is a general term which often refers to a set of one or more highly related products which service a particular customer transaction or business need. Introduction This portion of the study presented various write-ups, articles, studies, reports and related literatures, both foreign and local about cultural preservation and other issues and concerns brought by agents local and international. Foreign Literature According to Kennedy (201 1), productivity is the efficient creation of goods and services. Productivity is a product of various factors; it can be the workplace such as lightning, ventilation and sanitation. If they are not favorable, they reduced productivity. Employees are the most important productive resources of the organization. If they are trained and treated properly, they are capable of attaining peak performance. For this reason, progressive business enterprises never stop developing their employees through education and training, whatever financial needs their employees have, they get their companies assistant. Capron’ (201 1), stated that all human beings must deal with the passing of time. Different cultures emphasize a different ways of understanding and managing time, including whether time is viewed as a scarce resource to be saved and spent wisely or a series of moments to savor; whether people should manage their time by doing one thing at a time or many things at once; whether the people should focus primarily on the past, present, or future. These assumptions have implications for day to day time management and coordination, as well as for strategic planning. According to Heaven et al. (2010) work may be stressful when we feel that we do tot have enough time to complete the work. We may wish to find a better way to manage our time. This could include a number of things, such as proportioning tasks and developing plans to achieve goals. As donated by Levity et al. (2010) managing time effectively is one of the keys to become an efficient worker. Follow these time management tips to increase your productivity: be on time; determine your priorities plan your work around them; use time management tools; develop your good time management habits; keep your work area well-organized; expect that adjusting to your new Job take some time How to cite Para maka gawa lang, Papers

Corporate Communication Strategies of Apple Inc-Free-Samples

Question: Choose and describe the Corporate communication area of one company of their choice. Answer: Introduction Corporate communication is the act of creating, improving and keeping up a brand image or reputation. Each business, of whatever size, puts resources into corporate correspondence activities to shape its image (Cornelissen Cornelissen, 2017). Corporate correspondence has been in charge of the overall achievement of many of the Fortune 1000 American enterprises, such as, McDonald's, Wal-Mart, IBM, Google, Microsoft, General Electric, Apple and Coca-Cola. In this paper the company Apple Inc. will be taken for analysis of its corporate communication strategies and abilities. Apple is one of the largest companies across the globe and is the leader in electronic gadgets manufacturing such as computers, laptops and mobile phones. They have one of the most active corporate communication departments. Company Overview Apple Inc. is the worlds one of the largest technology company based in California of the United States of America. A few of the very famous product line of the company include iPhone mobile phone series, iMac laptops and computers, iPad tablet computers, and recently launched Apple watch and Apple TV. It is by revenue the worlds largest company dealing with information technology. The company was first established in 1976 by three people Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne. The first product was the Apple 1 computer. In 1977 Apple 2 was launched, business was fast increasing. The Macintosh series was launched in 1984 the first computer for personal use which people could operate even without knowing programming language (Rawlinson, 2018). In Internal communication, the aim is to advance great correspondence in a both sided process; it is tied in with sharing data and maintaining all Apple Inc. workers refreshed with any information and news relating to the brand. At Apple Inc., Apple must represent the brand as the ideal most by taking into account successful and open communication and correspondence systems, fabricate strong and solid connections among the workers while keeping them educated. Among all its products the particular product which took Apple Inc to the heights of success is their iPhone mobile phone series (, 2018). The iPhone was first launched by Steve Jobs the then CEO in 2007, and soon became a craze (Titcomb, 2017). Every year the company started bringing out new versions of iPhone. Reputation Apple Inc. enjoys very stable reputation among the consumers and the stakeholders. Apple's prosperity and growth is somewhat because of its capacity and ability to fulfill stakeholders expectations and its responsibilities towards the employees and customers (Elsbach, 2012). For Apple's situation, stakeholders in a collective manner influence the business as far as client recognition and revenue generation. Comprehending about the proceeded with high estimation of its image, Apple adequately represents stakeholders in its techniques and approaches. For example, the organization tends to their environmental concerns through an approach on practical material sourcing. Apple has a very inclusive methodology in tending to the interests of partners who are critical to the business. These stakeholders groups propel Apple to enhance, and Apple influences them by catering to their interests. In terms of dealing with the internal stakeholders like the employees, Apple and its suppliers utiliz e in excess of 1.5 million individuals in 20 nations, the permanent number of employees working with Apple Inc. is 123 thousand, and each one of those individuals are treated with pride and regard (, 2017). They communicate intimately with suppliers to end bonded labor work, underage work and exorbitant work hours. Apple conveyed the center business issue of working conditions to its suppliers and representatives through a wide range of techniques. Those organizations with sweeping supply chains, managing the suppliers has turned into a business basic. The company actively communicates with its stakeholders to give them the required information as per their individual needs. The stakeholder opine that the company is very prompt in engaging with the them about every information that is necessary to be conveyed. Corporate Communication FunctionFive Examples from company website- Apple accelerates US investment and job creation (, 2018). Apple and Chicago join forces to bring coding opportunities to citys students (, 2018). Emerging LA filmmakers create short films with small budgets and big ideas (, 2018). Apple announces effortless solution bringing health records to iPhone (, 2018). Apple Park Visitor Center opens to the public (, 2018). In the above examples we can see that the corporate communication has remarkably communicated the activities that reflect the overall good for the society that Apple has helped in achieving. In the first news Apple highlights how it has contributed in the process of job creation and investment in USA. This action will make the government to be more friendly to the company. It will increase the goodwill of the company and also increase its employee engagement. The stakeholders of the company will have better perception about the company. This is their communication strategy. The second news will attract new talents to become a part of the company as employees. In the third news the strategy that Apple has taken to establish a good public relation is evident, it has opened up doors for creative film makers to make films with Apple devices, in this way Apple will engage more people. The fourth communication will make Apple a part of the customers lives as a health companion. In the fift h news article communication strategy and media relation of the company can be comprehended, in this news Apple is opening up parks and public engagement spots where more people will get the chance to use Apple products and know the company in a better way. Therefore the company has adopted a communication strategy that is interactive and engaging. . The above five examples clearly state that the company takes care of all the sections of its stakeholders like government, employees, customers and the community in its corporate communication. Recommendations Two recommendations that can help Apple in improving their Corporate Communication are: - It can send daily news letters to the stakeholders customized according to their nature (Lawrence Weber, 2014). The stakeholders and existing customers can be sent regular news letters about relevant new according to their position. The company may make the corporate communication system more interactive, where the people may reply to the newsletters and communication and their reply and queries would be followed up. Conclusion Corporate correspondence enables associations to clarify their main goal, consolidate its numerous dreams and qualities into a firm message to partners. The idea of corporate correspondence could be viewed as an integrative correspondence structure connecting partners to the association. Apple has been using the method of corporate communication very well in establishing its brand image and increasing its goodwill in the market. References (2018).iPhone.Apple. Retrieved 22 February 2018, from (2018).Newsroom.Apple Newsroom. Retrieved 22 February 2018, from Cornelissen, J., Cornelissen, J. P. (2017).Corporate communication: A guide to theory and practice. Sage. Elsbach, K. D. (2012). A framework for reputation management over the course of evolving controversies.The Oxford handbook of corporate reputation, 466-286. Lawrence, A. T., Weber, J. (2014).Business and society: Stakeholders, ethics, public policy. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. Rawlinson, N. (2018).Apple was 41 years old in April, here's some history.Macworld UK. Retrieved 22 February 2018, from, (2017).Apple: number of employees 2017 | Statistic.Statista. Retrieved 22 February 2018, from Titcomb, J. (2017).How the world reacted to the first iPhone 10 years ago.The Telegraph. Retrieved 22 February 2018, from

Friday, May 1, 2020

Speech topic free essay sample

Teenage Pregnancies associate with social issues , such as lower educational levels and higher rates of Poverty. This happens because when they are pregnant they drop out of shcool and just worry about their baby. Although they are unemployed they go on a benefit which is when money is given by the goverment. Why do the young mums still lead a poor life inspite of money given by the goverment ? Well , they lead poor life because they dont think about the future , instead they spend all their money on their child. They dont save up any money and they keep buying things for themselves and their child. Finally they come to a time when they need help and support with their child. They need support with their child so they live a happy life and they need support from their family so that they dint get stressed out and start abusing their baby,and they also need help with buying the right items such as nappies ,food,clothes e. We will write a custom essay sample on Speech topic or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page t. c. In conclusion,Teenage Pregnancy need to decrease as it is making NZ look very bad because the rate of Teenage Pregnancy is the highest in NZ as compared to other countries in the world. In the end I would like to say that teenagers should stay in school and study so that they have a brighter future and can give a very dignified life to their families. Did you know? Women spend an average of $12,000 annually on beauty products. Is it really worth that much? I mean the beauty industry is, worldwide, getting $45 to $66 billion dollars. Imagine if we weren’t spending all that money on makeup, if we could have put most of that money to stuff like charity, we could have changed people’s lives. Not only do we spend too much money on makeup and beauty products, we also spend a lot of time on makeup and beauty itself. Is spending that much time on our beauty good? Spending that much time of your looks can send a message to men that you want them to see you for your looks rather than your personality. But do you? A person’s personality is richer and more in depth then their looks. Your looks are more of a mask then who you really are. On top of all that does it really matter if you are wearing makeup or not? Everyone is beautiful in their own natural way you dont have to cover it up with makeup. When I say natural beauty that doesn’t just mean the perfections in a person’s looks it also counts the imperfections, the flaws within a person’s looks makes them all that more real. So when you cover up your face in makeup you cover up your natural imperfections and end up hurting your looks more than. I know I had already talked personality and how important  that is and how spending too much time on beauty will send the wrong message to the men but if you really think about it you dont want people see you just as an attractive figure, you want people to see you as more than that. Also people think because beauty products make you look good that theyre healthy for them, well if any of you think that think twice. There are Campaigns out there for Safe Cosmetics that has been working hard to get toxic chemicals such as phthalates, musks, lead and formaldehyde out of personal care products and beauty products such as mascara, eye shadow and foundation which that may lead to cancer.