Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Women s Rights And Feminist Movements - 995 Words

Although often iconized as a time of industrial and political revolution the 20th Century provided an equally important platform for social revolution. During this era countless social movements emerged, notably so the women’s rights and feminist movements. Tremendous gains were made for women throughout the century’s span, from suffrage, to equal pay, and the availability of contraceptives. One of the most complex feminist movements of the 20th century followed the period’s most tumultuous event: World War II. While under occupation by the United States the Japanese feminist movement flourished and the lives of Japanese women changed dramatically. The feminism of this period, from the end of the war to the end of occupation, has been studied by numerous historians and is mentioned in most literature concerning occupation. The leading scholars of occupation feminism have approached and presented the topic in three distinctly different ways: several focus on cultu ral changes, others emphasize the movement’s deep historical roots, and some criticize the period as flawed feminism. The loss of World War II was a catalyst for cultural change within Japan. Occupation and the subsequent influx of American ideals and culture influenced the changes that occurred in Japanese women’s lives. John Dower, a retired MIT professor of Japanese history, reflects on these cultural changes in his work â€Å"Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II†. Throughout his book in chapters suchShow MoreRelatedFeminist Psychology Can Credit The Majority Of Its Influences Of The Women s Rights Movement1295 Words   |  6 PagesFeminist psychology can credit the majority of its influences of the women’s rights movement of the 60’s. Since this movement was classified as grassroots, no one has been credited as an originator or founder of this particular theory. Feminists attempted to collect elements of multiple successful ps ychological theories but attempted to eliminate any sexist aspects of those theories. The primary focus is on guiding women in confidence, communication, self-worth, and interactions. Feminist therapyRead MoreHow Did The Feminist Movement Address The Issues Surrounding Women s Rights?859 Words   |  4 PagesHow did the feminist movement address the issues surrounding women’s rights in terms of their bodies? Women were starting to make progression in equality in terms of jobs and pay but still lacked to reform on issues that surrounded women and control they lacked in society over their bodies. One of the first things protested was the Miss America contest. The selection of Miss America still painted women to be as men and society thought they should be. Women said Miss America was oppressive and asRead MoreFeminism And Its Impact On Women s Rights Movement Essay1586 Words   |  7 Pagesmyself as a feminist made me uncomfortable since it evoked the image of a troop of an angry man-hating, unattractive women. When signing up for classes for senior year, I wanted to pick classes of interest to me, but sadly those classes were filled up, leaving me with no choice to enroll in a Gender Studies class. Unexpectedly, I never met with a mass of enraged women spewing hate towards males; rather it was calm and filled with intelligent conversations.Media often broadcasts radical feminists as theR ead MoreThe Second Wave Of Feminism799 Words   |  4 Pagesfeminism (in the 1960’s and 1970’s) successful in achieving equality for women?† The essay is introduced by describing why the second wave of feminism developed and the aims of this second wave of feminist. The essay is broken into two parts. The first part of the essay discusses the impact of women s rights activist on legislation. It is argued that the second wave feminist were unsuccessful in gaining equality in terms of obtaining equal wages and opportunities for women in the workplace. TheyRead MoreThe Feminist Movement1137 Words   |  5 Pagesalways been a common belief that women exist inferior to men. The Bible demonstrates that God made the first woman Eve from the rib of Adam and God â€Å"[does] not permit a woman to teach or to exercise authority over a man; rather, she is to remain quiet† (1 Timothy 2:11-15). However, understanding their important role in the family and society an d feeling tired of being undertreated by men, women finally stood up for themselves. In the 19th century, the Feminist Movement emerged and completely changedRead MoreFazal Ihsan Pattathil. Mrs. Ramsey. English I. 05 May 2017.1231 Words   |  5 PagesPattathil Mrs. Ramsey English I 05 May 2017 Feminist Movement Pros/Cons In the 1960’s women in America were expected to marry in their early 20’s and start a family. Back then not many women worked, most stayed at home and took care of the children. Now, in the year 2017, women have equal rights to men and are now a very important part of the workforce. Although the Feminist movement is giving women equal treatment to men there are also feminists who believe that women should be indistinguishable to men,Read MoreFirst Wave Feminism By Betty Friedan1171 Words   |  5 PagesBackground Knowledge: Second-wave feminism refers to the period of feminist activity that focused on social and legal issues of gender equality such as sexuality, family, the workplace, reproductive rights and equal opportunity in education and the workplace. Source 1: The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan In 1963, Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique was published. Friedan discussed the problem that â€Å"lay buried, unspoken† in the minds of the suburban housewife, saying that they were too sociallyRead MoreBeauvoir s Feminist Beliefs : Simone De Beauvoir924 Words   |  4 PagesBeauvoir’s Feminist Beliefs (An educational analysis of Simone de Beauvoir s feminist beliefs) Simone de Beauvoir is to this day one of the key central figures in the women’s rights movement. She inspired people all over the world. Although she may not be the extreme feminist that people believe her to be. Beauvoir said many times that she naturally didn’t believe that women were inferior to men, but she also didn’t believe that they were naturally equal either. Beauvoir wrote the book The SecondRead MoreDoes Feminism Create Equality?1037 Words   |  5 Pageshas the capability to limit an individual’s social and political right. Even if there is inequality between men and women, feminism has never been the main reason to give women their civil rights. Feminism started among European activists in the 19th century, when women were not treated equally and were not elected to high positions of power. Indeed, it sought to eliminate sexism in all forms. While feminism has made advances for women to compete with men and narrow gender differences, fem inism isRead MoreAge, Race, Class And Sex : Women Redefining Difference By Audre Lorde1327 Words   |  6 PagesYunqin Chi WGS210 Essay 1 In the article â€Å" Age, Race, Class and Sex: Women Redefining Difference† by Audre Lorde , she talks about the differences between people in our society, the differences between black and white women, the different isms of society, and what we can do to change. The difference in age, race, class and sex is incorrectly classified as good or bad, right or wrong. These categories are then named and accepted for the position of god and the people, the people and the wives, the

Monday, December 16, 2019

Social regulation in the workplace Free Essays

string(72) " promotion of adult females in the workplace \( Mattis et al, 2002 \) \." An Examination of the Concepts and Theories Associated with an Analysis of Social Regulation in the Workplace And the Groups and Representative Institutions Associated With These Procedures Introduction †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. We will write a custom essay sample on Social regulation in the workplace or any similar topic only for you Order Now .†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 2 Conclusion †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 8 Bibliography.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦ . 9 Introduction Globalization as a phenomenon that has and is utilized to depict the vicissitudes of our universe today, has been attributed as a cause, status, underpinning, end and procedure that has and is polishing how and what we are as persons, companies, organisations, states and parts. Some have described globalisation as making an addition in societal interactions and connexions over infinite ( Chase/Dunn et al, 2000, pp. 77-95 ) . The preceding does apparently hold cogency given the broad spread additions in international communications that has helped to further thoughts with images of films from foreign venues, low cost telecommunications for personal calls and Internet confab suites, instant messaging every bit good as web sites and electronic mail allowing enlargement of our positions. This new environment has besides caused some states to take a closer expression at their societal constructions with regard to past events and current tendencies. One such country is the issue of feminin e equality. The Women’s Movement of the sixtiess has ne’er died, it has merely taken on a more broad spread veneer as adult females, cognizant of the varied societal inequalities, have rolled up their arms and taken the affair up on a by and big personal 1 on one footing. Evidence in support of this can be found in the addition in educational committedness. In 2005 ( UCAS, 2005 ) females represented 239,331 of all appliers for grades in establishments of higher acquisition in the United Kingdom, as compared with 214,502 for males. The entire figure of females accepted represented 170,003, males – 153,215, with the per centum rate for the predating representing 73.5 % and 71.4 % severally ( UCAS, 2005 ) . However, there is still a disproportionate relationship found in wage graduated tables, the gender wage spread for corporate director places is 27.8 % , whereby females earn 73.2 % of what their male opposite numbers do for the same degree of work ( Purcell, 2002, p. 6 ) . In an economic and matter-of-fact sense, globalisation has tended to increase the power of capital in its relationship to labour as directors cite retrenchment, increased productiveness and quality along with wage as a coefficient of merchandise and or service cost. Governmen tal response to threats associating to its corporations, intending companies housed within its boundary lines, is to cut down societal protections therefore increasing the flexibleness of the labour force ( Gummett, 1996 ) . Governmental policies on corporate societal duty are a big construct in that it encompasses the undermentioned statement ( Corporate Social Responsibility, 2004 ) â€Å"The Government sees CSR as the concern part to our sustainable development goals† . The statement goes on to add that it is seen by authorities as â€Å"†¦ how concern takes history of its economic, societal †¦ impacts in the manner it operates †¦Ã¢â‚¬  ( Corporate Social Responsibility, 2004 ) . It goes on to add that it sees â€Å"†¦ CSR as the voluntary actions that concern can take, over and above conformity with minimal legal demands to turn to †¦ its ain competitory involvements and †¦ . involvements of wider society† ( Corporate Social Responsi bility, 2004 ) . This scrutiny shall take a expression at the constructs every bit good as theories that are associated with societal ordinance in the workplace, along with the persons, groups and representative establishments that as associated with these procedures. The criterions for gender balance in working environments is put away by the authorities are defined by the transition of ordinances get downing with the seventiess. The execution of legislative policy is an historical cheque on the societal procedures and demands for alteration that preceded their debut therefore supplying hints as to the underlying societal alterations that represented issues prior to enactment. The Equal Pay Act of 1970 ( International Labour Organization, 2005 ) provided that work forces and adult females have the same equal terms with respect to the conditions and footings of employment stand foring occupations comprised of the same degree or similar degrees of work. An amendment to this Act was implemented in 1983 ( HMS, 2005 ) to bespeak that all persons executing the same work must have the same rate of wage, bespeaking frontward advancement in societal duty that was further strengthened by the Sex Discrimination Act of 1975 ( Stationary Office, 2005 ) which specified that favoritism against adult females has occurred when they are treated less than favourably in comparing with work forces and that where conditions and or demands are implemented or imposed whereby it consequences in places skewed unevenly in favour of males, every bit good as demands and or conditions whereby adult females would non be in a place to follow with. It legislated that adult females and work forces are equal and included statute law to extinguish favoritism utilizing gestation and or childbearing. The authorities through legislative amendments has strengthened assorted facets of the preceding over the old ages as represented by the followers: A. Equal Wage Amendments ( HMS, 2005 ) Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1992 Employment Rights Act 1996 Employment Rights Act 1998 B. Sex Discrimination Act 1975 Amendments ( HMS, 2005 ) The Sex Discrimination Regulations 1999 Legislation nevertheless can non do companies to speed up or increase their committednesss and or ethical patterns in the country of societal duty as wonts and the position quo tend to be engrained in corporate civilization and decelerate to alter. Rubery ( 2003 ) points out that as a consequence of the deficiency of mechanisms that are effectual in turn toing employer behaviour, the chance for extra additions in the country of societal duty will stay slow. His position has besides been adopted by Roivaset et Al ( 2004 ) . It has been argued that the concern issues with regard to adult females in the workplace is a accepted issue and that gender equality represents an of import societal duty, the consensus is that it is good policy to put to the promotion of adult females in the workplace ( Mattis et al, 2002 ) . You read "Social regulation in the workplace" in category "Essay examples" It has besides been put forth that speed uping equal chances with respect to adult females in the workplace can be advanced through combinations of legal attacks in the country of conformity every bit good as the concern instances and through societal ordinance ( Dickens, 1999 ) . Corporate Social duty entails three facets that are associated with the ground for the pattern and why it exists in the first topographic point: Corporate Social Responsibility entails conformity with statute law. This has been pointed out by Carol ( 1999 ) in his â€Å"Corporate societal duty – development of a definitional construct† paper. Corporate Social Responsibility has to boot emerged in footings of a concern instance that is connected to put on the line inauspicious investing, employee satisfaction, additions in corporate repute and increasing the corporation’s capacity for invention as theorized by Siegal et Al ( 2002 ) And in conclusion, Corporate Social Responsibility has become an facet of the societal cloth through soft statute law by assorted authoritiess, every bit good as through alliances stand foring authoritiess and evidenced by the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Companies, and non authorities organisations ( Moon, 2004 ) And while the feminine issue has taken a back place in the procedure, corporations utilize their engagement in Corporate Social duty to advance their standing in the concern and public spheres, with companies in assorted alliances every bit good as associations and organisations such as Business in the Community, the Global Reporting Initiative and the United Nations Global Compact. Corporate Social duty is an activity that is engaged in the societal facets in their context of concern success that are external societal and internal extensions of the company. It is involved in procedures implying the allotment, coverage and measuring of societal public presentation in concurrence with political facets such as the shaping of duties every bit good as rights in the context of stakeholder engagements. Monbiot ( 2000 ) every bit good as Hertz ( 2001 ) see Corporate Social Responsibility as important in footings of society in the wide context every bit good as in the context of the societal facet of single concerns and chiefly in transnational corporations whose public and international actions are scrutinized. It besides is understood in footings of the addition in which authorities is and has encouraged battle to do concern to see its importance as a turning context of the overall societal cloth. Despite the comparatively slow advancement in female promotion connected through Corporate Social Responsibility agendas it is an active and bing focal point which adult females have at their disposal to help in farther progresss, despite the limited tools and resources in that respect. Its arrangement in the countries of human capital direction, corporate societal duty guidelines every bit good as socially responsible investing are employee and diverseness issues that represent support mechanisms to farther hereafter progresss. The Council of Europe ( 2006 ) states that societal coherence represents the â€Å"†¦ capacity of a society to guarantee the public assistance of all its members, minimising disparities†¦Ã¢â‚¬  and has added that gender quality is an country that means equal visibleness every bit good as authorization and the engagement of the sexes ( both ) in all facets of public every bit good as private life. The Council of Europe ( 2006 ) has indicated that t he betterment and development of policy procedures should be evaluated and reorganized to integrate the position of gender equality in all degrees and at all phases of public and concern activities. The Council indicates that gender equality needs to be positioned at the nucleus of societal rating and analysis from the beginning and the gender issues need to be farther identified and reviewed in the context of policies every bit good as the publicity of gender equality as a mainstream of societal duty. Walby ( 2004 ) adds that it goes beyond the thought of merely adding adult females in footings of employment Numberss it is a inquiry of policies and the affects. Rees ( 2004 ) sees the procedure of corporate societal duty as necessitating to deviate its attending in footings of persons to the systems and constructions which gave rise to the state of affairs whereby it arose in the first topographic point. He continues that there are three distinguishable attacks to the issue, which are 1. legal, 2. best pattern, and 3. gender mainstreaming Rees ( 2004 ) . Advancing adult females in the context of corporate societal duty represents the use of the political every bit good as societal procedure and that garnering information from adult females as the foundation to measure ways in which to trip the procedure represents a cardinal measure in doing it work. The procedure of supplying and giving gender equality more dentitions is non feminism but world in seting the position of enabling so ciety to deduce the most benefit from all of its participants and therefore progress itself beyond its present boundaries and restrictions with new and fresh inputs. The procedure besides includes outside groups and organisations that are engaged in the procedure whose influence at nowadays is minimum, yet active. The figure of groups and organisations stand foring societal duty in the context of females is modest. The undermentioned represents a partial list: The Association of Sustainability Practitioners located at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.new-academy.ac.uk/ is engaged in trade and gender issues. Business for Social duty provides a wealth of information every bit good as rank for persons interested in advancing all facets of this subject, including women’s issues at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bsr.org/ CSR Europe is a non-profit organisation advancing corporate societal duty and states its mission is to assist companies attain profitableness, every bit good as to prolong growing and human advancement. Its web site is at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.csreurope.org/aboutus/ Centre for Corporate Accountability, which is located at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.corporateaccountability.org/about.htm is devoted to societal answerability and duty issues and offers legal aid every bit good as academic and militants. The activities in the country of gender equality have developed, yet the motion is still slightly stuck in its ain inability to specify itself in more direct footings. Many companies have developed the concern instance attack and therefore the betterment of their patterns with regard to promotion of adult females in the workplace. The sphere of equal chance as put Forth in 1970 is taking a long clip to go more that an legislative Act, it is apparently taking the remotion of one coevals and portion of another to prosecute the procedure as a normal, instead than legislative fact. Organizations such as Opportunity Now in the United Kingdom, every bit good as Catalyst in the United States have demonstrated that to prosecute the effectual promotion of adult females in the workplace, organisations need leading that is effectual every bit good as committed. The concern every bit good as societal instance for gender equality represents a concern chance that needs more active battle in HR pat terns every bit good as keeping, preparation, wage, work-life balance and publicity to supply it with life. At present, there is some grounds that there are programmes whereby the sweetening of gender equality can be advanced through the arrangement of monitoring and measuring that is conducted on a regular footing with the aid of authorities to do the procedure to go actively occupied instead than the inactive phase that authorities takes soon. The committedness on the portion of authorities represents a committedness on behalf of the people, and that is the musculus this procedure needs to acquire it out of the clay and back on the route. The slow growing policy has been developing velocity since the 1970s and still has non truly moved to any appreciable grade. The statute law has been in topographic point, now it needs to be activated as a portion of societal duty to supply impulse. Decision With all the preceding, so the inquiry is what has happened to the focal point and context of Corporate Social duty? Focus, is the primary reply. World events such as terrorist act, the war in Iraq, concern fight issues, offense, pension financess, and wellness attention issues have taken phase with societal duty and eroded the societal focal point. It no longer commands the same tableland in face of economic, wellness, public assistance and safety issues and therefore corporate focal point and social focal point has been diverted. The predating illustrations and countries represent the get downing stage of a larger docket that has merely entered is embryologic phase, therefore farther growing is expected. But, as with all things it will necessitate a consistent diet of growing and attending, maintaining it watered and fed until it is strong plenty to hold legs of its ain. The growing in the procedure will come from rules that are based in justness, equity and an apprehension of equity to broaden the context to societal inclusion. As stated by Rees ( 2004 ) the focal point is pull offing diverseness which needs to go one of enlightenment. The displacement is from the feminine position to acknowledging that the systems and constructions that have developed over decennaries has given rise to a system and processes whereby the state of affairs developed to the point that it became the normal behavior of life. Changing that facet will necessitate work as positions, and the comfort of things being the manner they are represent wonts that are engrained and hard to readapt. The full context entails traditional thoughts from a cultural and societal position which has conditioned behavior to the point where in many instances most males are non even cognizant it is an issue, and that is precisely the issue. Bibliography Carol, A. ( 1999 ) Corporate societal duty – development of a definitional concept. Vol. 38. , Issue 3. Business and Society Chase-Dunn, C. , Kawano, Y. , Brewer, B. ( 2000 )Pull offing Social Policy.Sage Publications, London, United Kingdom Corporate Social Responsibility ( 2004 )What is CSR? .hypertext transfer protocol: //www.societyandbusiness.gov.uk/whatiscsr.shtml Council of Europe ( 2005 )Social Policies.hypertext transfer protocol: //www.coe.int/T/E/Social_cohesion/Social_policies/ Devils, L. ( 1999 )Beyond the Business Case: A three pronged attack to equality action. Vol. 9, Issue 1. Human Resource Management Journal Gummett, P. ( 1996 )Globalization and Public Policy.Edward Elgar Publications, Cheltenham, United Kingdom Hertz, N. ( 2001 )The Silent Coup d’etat. Heinemann, London, United Kingdom HMS. ( 2005 ) .Equal Pay Act 1970.hypertext transfer protocol: //www.legislation.hmso.gov.uk/acts.htm HMS. ( 2005 ) .Sex Discrimination Act 1975. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.legislation.hmso.gov.uk/acts.htm International Labor Organization ( 2005 ) 1970 Equal Pay Act. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/gems/eeo/law/uk/epa.htm Mattis, M. , Giscombe, K. ( 2002 )Leveling the Playing Field for Women of Colour in Corporate Management: Is the Business instance Enough? ?Vol. 37, Issue 1. Journal of Business Ethical motives Monbiot, G. ( 2000 )Captive State: The Corporate Takeover of Britain.MacMillan, Basingstoke Moon, J. ( 2004 )Government as a Driver of Corporate Social duty: The UK in Comparative Perspective. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nottingham.ac.uk/busijness/CCSR/index.htmml Network Partnership. ( 2005 ) .Equal Pay.hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nirs.demon.co.uk/eqpay.htm Purcell, K. ( 2002 )Qualifications A ; Careers. University of Wales. Rees, T. ( 200 )Contemplations on the uneven development of gender mainstreaming.Leeds University Roivas, S. , Reinicke, K, Thorbergsdottir, B ( 2004 )The European Employment Strategy and national employment policies. In From public assistance to knowfare. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bifrost.is/wellnow/Files/Skra0005517.pdf Rubery, J. ( 2002 )Gender Mainstreaming and Gender Equality in the EU. Vol. 33, Issue 5. Industrial Relations Journal Siegal, D. , McWilliams, A. ( 2002 )Corporate societal duty: a theory of the signifier position. Vol. 26. , Issue 1. Academy of Management Review Stationary Office ( 2005 ) .The Sex Discrimination Act 1975.hypertext transfer protocol: //www.pfc.org.uk/legal/sda.htm Universities and Colleges Admissions Service ( 2005 )Applicants and Acceptance for Degrees.hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ucas.ac.uk/ Walby, S. ( 2004 )Gender mainstreaming: productive tensenesss in theory and pattern.University of Leeds How to cite Social regulation in the workplace, Essay examples

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Eliminating Plastic Bottles in the United States

Question: Write an essay on Eliminating Plastic Bottles in the United States? Answer: Introduction The use of plastic bottles in the United States is increasing from the last century. Plastic bottles have enhanced the pollution in environment through the considerable percentage. There are many companies that are suing the plastic bottles in order to pack the drinking water or other ready to drink items. The increase in the use of plastic bottles is increasing at the alarming rate. This essay looks into the plastic bottles in the U.S. This essay intends to come up with the dangers related to plastic bottles, and support the readers with elimination solutions, so that they could reduce the environmental dangers. Increasing use of Plastic Bottles Plastic water bottles are usually available anywhere that too at the low price and at easy convenience. Currently, plastic bottle are used in the microscope, as the industries that are unnecessary inefficient and wasteful, when the clean water of tap is available in various countries of the world. There are many solutions as well as alternatives, which are proposed such as, ban of bottle water, ban on the production of plastic, which is made through the resources other than the oil; adopting the system of filtration in order to refill the stations . Every proposed solution present the various and different set of positive as well as negative attributes, in order to progress towards the goal for adopting the sustainable distributing water system; it is quite imperative that all the positive attributes of every alternative are actually embraced and built over it . Despite of having the strict type of regulations over the quality of water in America, the demand for plastic bottle has increased constantly. Presently, around 20% of the total population depends on the plastic bottles for their regular hydration. In the year 1990, the plastic bottle use has considerably increased, and this has happened as there are many soft drinks companies has set up and has produced the ready to drink items. All these companies opted for the plastic bottles, due to many certain reasons. Plastic bottles also offered wide range of benefits to the companies. Plastic bottles seemed to have semi-rigid towards rigid that relies over the lightweight and thickness. The plastic bottles provide fair gas as well as barriers of moisture, solvent and alcohol barriers. They also make use of the polyvinyl alcohol, in order to minimize the permeability. The companies also make use of the plastic bottles, as they provide cheap way of manufacturing it. Plastic bottles in USA Plastic bottles are compared with various other types of packaging that offers the chance of recycling. The use of plastic bottles has started becoming crucial issue to the world as well as United States. In U.S, for example, the use of plastic bottles increased by 500%. Currently, around 1 million tons of plastic is used in water bottle, and soft drinks in a year. The rate by which plastic bottle gas used has remarkably gone high in comparison to its recycling. This has happened as the plastic recycling has become messy and inefficient. The plastic bottle recycling is not actually at the similar pace, same as in production. The rate through which these companies are entering into the market has overturned the rate by which they are recycled. Once the people use these bottles, they actually throw them. The use of plastic bottles has posed serious issues of environment in the USA. The issues related with the use of plastic bottles have impacted every person. It also impacts the children, adults, female, men, and youth in the society. Mainly, it impacts the complete citizenry, in every part of USA. This happened due to the use of plastic bottles that pollutes the environment. The issues related to the use of plastic bottles have impacted the environment in direct way, and the people who interact with the environment also get impacted. For example, in the year 2006, 2 million of the liter bottles in the USA. They created around thousands of tons of plastic that increase global warming pollution as well as disturb the air position. Alone in New York, the bottled water from Western Europe calculated that 2800 tons of global warming pollution has gone in the atmosphere. In the city of California, 18 million of the plastic bottle has caused around 2500 tons of the global warming pollution. Issues come across the fact that plastic bottle dont be biodegrade, they actually form the permanent form of landfills. Every year, people in America throw 6 million of bottles. Its noted that from the 26 bison, there are only 15% of the bottles that get recycled. This has resulted into clogging of the landfills that cause through the lack of system of recycling of plastic bottle. The plastic bottles mainly use the various fossil fuels, which usually pollute the environment. People in USA usually purchase the bottle water in comparison to other people in the world. Present bottled water comes to around 29 billion of the plastic bottles in the environment. For the purpose of come up with amount of plastic bottle, manufacturers make use of 17 million around of barrel of crude oil. This cost to the country in context of the fuel, which goes in the bottled water production. The issues related to the use of plastic bottle include the fact that from the six bottles used; one of them goes in the recycling process. The other end of the plastic bottle goes in rivers, oceans land, or lakes. The plastic bottle manufactures needs to have the combination of petroleum and gas. Therefore, the plastic bottle production carets the upsurge the process of fuel as there is high demand. Most of the plastic bags and bottles usually create the important economic as well as environmental burden. They usually consume the increasing energy as well as other natural resources, which degrade the environment in various ways. Along with this, using the fossil fuel and various other resources, plastic items try to create the litter, impact marine life as well as threaten the base of life on the earth. They also produce around 25 million of tons of plastic in US each year. Its noted that in the year 2009, around 30 million tons of plastic was generated in America, and around 2 million ton was actually recovered. In the year 2009, around 2.12 million ton of plastic was recycled in America. But only 7.1% was generated in 2009. In the year 2009, recycling arte of plastic bottle was around 2.5 billion pounds that comes to around 28% of the plastic bottles, which are consumed in the USA. As per the economics, in the year 2009, around $485 million of plastic was wasted in America, which comes from 1000 households living in USA and comes from middle income group. As per the accessibility, there are around 94% of the Americans that has access to the recycling of plastic bottle and around 40% of the total population can recycle their plastic containers such as lids as well as dairy tubs. In around 100 cities through the 2500 community person, the population percentage having the accessibility to recycle the plastic containers along with bottles has increased by the year 2008. According to recycled content, around 8 million of the plastic bottles that are produced in America in 2009 are recycled; the material produced is around 22 million of the large t-shirts. The plastic bottle recycle in 2009, offer the raw material of 7 million shirts, and 44% rise in 2009 of recycled plastic is used in beverage and food. As per the energy, every pound of the recycled plastic that is used in place of virgin material eliminate the use of energy in the production of plastic by 84% along with 71% of greenhouse gas emission. In case of plastic bags and recycling, in the year 2009, there is around 855 million pounds of plastic bottle is recycled in USA that comes to around 31% from 2005. In case of economics, only 9% of the total plastic bottles were recycled in 2009, which implies 3470 tons. United States is the worst offender in case of plastic bottle. The country top in the top trash producer all over the world, that comes to around 5% of the population of earth that generates around 40% of the waste of the earth (DIANE Publishing Company 1991). Its noted that typical family of US consumes around 182 gallons of the soda, 29 gallons of the juice, around 104 gallons of the milk, and around 26 gallons of the bottled water every year. The main question is that how US could become environmentally sound place in concern to plastic bottles. There are many other countries like UK and Japan that are instituted towards recycling programs in order to reduce the plastic bottle waste. Curiously, there are many laws, which actually non-existent in the country like America, and many voluntary efforts are taken that have become unsuccessful. Conclusion In case of the plastic bottles, there might be laws that make deposit and make it mandatory to recycle the plastic bottle. There are many states that have made the laws mandatory. In the United States, they have deposits of plastic bottles, and the rate of recycling has increased by 85% by the year 2008. The possible factors of plastic bottles can also be applied in case of aluminum cans, and deposit could also be imposed. However, its noted that aluminum is consistently worth of money at the scrap dealer; therefore, one could think about the monetary compensation. References Boone and Kurtz. Contemporary Marketing. Cengage Learning, 2011. Carlson. Biology Is Technology. Harvard University Press, 2010. DIANE Publishing Company. Let's Reduce And Recycle: Curriculum For Solid Waste Awareness. DIANE Publishing, 1991. Flounders. Reducing Waste. Red Chair Press, 2014. Jamieson. A Companion to Environmental Philosophy. John Wiley Sons, 2008. Knight. Plastic Pollution. Raintree, 2013. Ma. Professional Marketing and Advertising Essays and Assignments. Tony Ma, 2014. Miller and Spoolman. 2010. Environmental Science. Cengage Learning, 2010. Munger. Recycling: Can It Be Wrong, When It Feels So Right? 2013. Web 3 March 2015. https://www.cato-unbound.org/2013/06/03/michael-c-munger/recycling-can-it-be-wrong-when-it-feels-so-right Ogunseitan. Green Health: An A-to-Z Guide. SAGE, 2011.Petersons. Green Careers in Energy. Peterson's, 2010.Rachael. The Plastic Plague. 2014. Web 3 March 2015. https://www.teenink.com/hot_topics/environment/article/209463/The-Plastic-Plague/Roza. Reducing Your Carbon Footprint on Vacation. The Rosen Publishing Group, 2008.Terry. Plastic-Free: How I Kicked the Plastic Habit and How You Can Too. Skyhorse Publishing Company, Incorporated, 2012.FLOW for love of water. 2008. Web 3 March 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9aBZP4RnMxwInterlandi, Jeneen. The Race to Buy Up the World's Water. 2010. Web 3 March 2015. https://www.newsweek.com/race-buy-worlds-water-73893

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Toyota Satisfaction Committee Essays - Consumer Behaviour

Toyota Satisfaction Committee Toyota executives lead the customer satisfaction committee at TMS and TMC. * These committees help establish the link between marketing strategies and operational realities of the organization. DEVELOPMENT OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION COMMITTEE * One of Toyota's key indicators of its performance for customer satisfaction is "initial quality" or " the quality percieved by the customer in the first few months of ownership. * The J.D. Power initial survey provides feedback on quality to automobile producers, individual diagnostics, and comparison to competition. Toyota was not ranked number one in customer satisfaction by J.D. Power and found out they had a lot of room for improvemnt. * In 1986, TMS/USA made a strong proposal to TMC/Japan stating that Toyota should be number one. The proposal implied that TMC should improve product quality in the plants to achieve that number one ranking. * In 1987, TMC began to persue the proposal. * The initiative to improve the customer satisfaction came to be referred to as "J1". ESTABLISHMENT OF TMC'S CUSTOMER SATISFACTION COMMITTEE * In 1988 TMC established a committee structure specifically to accomplish the J1 objective for customer satisfaction. There were three subcommittees involved to address specific customer satisfaction issues: product quality, domestic sales and service, and overseas sale and service. INITIAL EFFORT TO IMPROVE QUALITY AT TMC JAPAN * TMC'S initial efforts for the J1 initiative concentrated on the work of the product quality committee. * They set out targets and initiated many improvements, and were to 60 to 70 percent on their way to achieving their targets when the incongruity between their "high" quality improvements and "lower" customer satisfaction rating became obvious. * TMC's product quality committee relied heavily on TMS's voice-of-customer information and surveys of customers. * Some of TMC's responses were "Door has scratch" or "grease on the carpet" but their audits of the vehicles when leaving Japan had no signs of these. The damage must be occurring after they leave Japan. THE J1 BOOMERANG * TMS returned messages to TMC stating product quality was improving, yet damaged vehicles are still arriving at the dealerships. * So TMC/Japan study team followed some shipments to the dealerships and discovered that the damage was indeed occurring after the vehicles left Japan, when the vehicles were the responsibility on TMS. * TMC reflected the proposal back to TMS that TMS itself should make some improvements on the J1 initiative. INITIAL EFFORTS TO IMPROVE QUALITY AT TMS * In 1989 they established a formal program defining standards to accessory installation processes and quality at ports of entry. * Quarterly audits provided feedback and encouragement. * They allowed dealership managers to improve goodwill warranty adjustments on their own. THE TMS CUSTOMER SATISFACTION COMMITTEE * The TMS customer satisfaction committee was established to improve teamwork and communication between all departments by coordinating the development of company-wide satisfaction activities. * The mission of the committee can be summarized in the following chain of events: 1. TO strengthen the dealer network, all TMS, activities, and product quality. 2. TO become number one in customer satisfaction, with millions of satisfied customers and high brand image. 3. TO achieve and maintain sales and volume of 1.5 million annually by retaining former customers and attaining new ones. THE COMMITTEE STRUCTURE * The committee structure is composed of the subcommittee chairmen, Japan staff advisor, and a secretary. The structure is not permanent and the committee maybe replaced if Toyota's priorities change. * The committee promotes communication and continues to oversee the work of the subcommittees, the cross-functional work really gets done in the subcommittees. * The subcommittees have became relatively powerful in this company, as far as getting work done quickly. THE SUBCOMMITTEES * Each major operational area at TMS is represented in a subcommittee made up of members responsible for instituting improvements in customer satisfaction. * These subcommittees include sales and marketing, parts and service, product quality, and Lexus. THE STRUCTURE OF SUBCOMMITTEES * The subcommittees provide a forum for cross-department communication among top-level representatives from diverse operational departments and for coordinated actions to improve customer satisfaction. * Involvement of operational department is key to success of the committee structure. * Another key factor to success of the committee structure is that each subcommittee is chaired by Toyota Vice President execustives. * Executive leaders of the subcommittees are responsible for involving all affected departments in determining problems and developing action plans related to customer satisfaction. Their involvement secures support and commitment for programs that address customer satisfaction issues. INFORMATION FLOW THROUGH SUBCOMMITTEES The subcommittees play a major role in gathering, analyzing, reporting, and distributing actionable

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

The Life and Work of Howard S. Becker

The Life and Work of Howard S. Becker Howard S. Howie Becker is an American sociologist renowned for his qualitative research into the lives of those otherwise classified as deviant, and for revolutionizing how deviant behavior is studied and theorized within the discipline. The development of the subfield focused on deviance is credited to him, as is  labeling theory. He also made significant contributions to the sociology of art. His most notable books include  Outsiders  (1963),  Art Worlds  (1982),  What About Mozart? What About Murder?  (2015).  Most of his career was spent as a professor of sociology at Northwestern University.   Early Life Born in 1928 in Chicago, IL, Becker is now technically retired but continues to teach and write in San Francisco, CA, and Paris, France. One of the most prolific living sociologists, he has about 200 publications to his name, including 13 books. Becker has been awarded six honorary degrees, and in 1998 was given the award for Career of Distinguished Scholarship by the American Sociological Association. His scholarship has been supported by the Ford Foundation, the Guggenheim Foundation, and the MacArthur Foundation. Becker served as President of the Society for the Study of Social Problems from 1965-66, and is a lifelong jazz pianist. Becker earned Bachelors, Masters, and Doctorate degrees in sociology from the University of Chicago, studying with those considered a part of the Chicago School of Sociology, including Everett C. Hughes, Georg Simmel, and Robert E. Park. Becker himself is considered a part of the Chicago School. His career in studying those considered deviant began thanks to his exposure to marijuana smoking at Chicagos jazz bars, where he regularly played piano. One of his earliest research projects focused on marijuana use. This research fed into his widely read and cited book  Outsiders, which is considered one of the first texts to develop labeling theory, which postulates that people adopt deviant behavior that breaks social norms after they have been labeled deviant by others, by social institutions, and by the criminal justice system. Importance of His Work The importance of this work is that it shifts analytic focus away from individuals and to social structures and relations, which allows for the social forces at play in producing deviance to be seen, understood, and changed, if need be. Beckers groundbreaking research resonates today in the work of sociologists who study how institutions, including schools, use racial stereotypes to label students of color as deviant problems that must be managed by the criminal justice system, rather than in-school punishment. Beckers book  Art Worlds  made important contributions to the subfield of the sociology of art. His work shifted the conversation from individual artists to the whole field of social relations that make the production, distribution, and valuation of art possible. This text also proved influential to the sociology of media, media studies, and cultural studies. Another important contribution that Becker made to sociology was to write his books and articles in an engaging and readable way that made them accessible to a wide audience. He wrote prolifically also on the important role that good writing plays in disseminating the results of sociological research. His books on this topic, which also serve as writing guides, include  Writing for Social Scientists,  The Tricks of the Trade, and  Telling About Society. Learn More About Howie Becker You can find much of Beckers writing on his website, where he also shares his music, photos, and favorite quotes. To learn more about Beckers fascinating life as a jazz musician/sociologist, check out this in-depth 2015 profile of him in  The New Yorker.

Friday, November 22, 2019

A Definition of Environmental Science

A Definition of Environmental Science Environmental science is the study of the interactions between the physical, chemical, and biological components of nature. As such, it is a multidisciplinary science: it involves a number of disciplines like geology, hydrology, soil sciences, plant physiology, and ecology. Environmental scientists may have training in more than one discipline; for example, a geochemist has expertise in both geology and chemistry. Most often, the multidisciplinary nature of environmental scientists’ work comes from collaborations they foster with other scientists from complementary research fields. A Problem-Solving Science Environmental scientists rarely just study natural systems, but instead usually work towards solving problems stemming from our interactions with the environment. Normally the basic approach taken by environmental scientists first involves using data to detect a problem and evaluate its extent. Solutions to the issue are then designed and implemented. Finally, monitoring is done to determine whether the problem was fixed. Some examples of the types of projects environmental scientists may be involved with include: Coordinating cleanup efforts at an abandoned oil refinery labeled as a Superfund site, determining the extent of the pollution problem and putting together a restoration plan.Forecasting the effects of global climate change and sea level rise on a coastal bay system, and assisting with finding solutions to limit damages on coastal wetlands, shoreline property, and public infrastructure.Consulting with a construction team to help them with minimizing sediment pollution coming from the site of a future grocery store.Assisting the managers of a state government’s fleet of vehicles with taking steps to reducing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions.Designing a restoration plan to bring acreage of oak savanna in the proper ecological state to host the endangered Karner blue butterfly and its host plant, the blue lupine. A Quantitative Science To evaluate the condition of a field site, the health of an animal population, or the quality of a stream most scientific approaches require extensive data collection. That data then needs to be summarized with a suite of descriptive statistics, then used to verify if a particular hypothesis is supported or not. This type of hypothesis testing requires complex statistical tools. Trained statisticians are often part of large research teams to assist with complicated statistical models. Other types of models are often used by environmental scientists. For example, hydrological models help understand groundwater flow and the spread of spilled pollutants, and spatial models implemented in a geographical information system (GIS) will help track deforestation and habitat fragmentation in remote areas. An Education in Environmental Science Whether it is a Bachelor of Arts (BA) or Bachelor of Science (BS), a university degree in environmental science can lead to a wide range of professional roles. Classes typically include earth science and biology courses, statistics, and core courses teaching sampling and analytical techniques specific to the environmental field. Students generally complete outdoor sampling exercises as well as inside laboratory work. Elective courses are usually available to provide students with the appropriate context surrounding environmental issues, including politics, economics, social sciences, and history. Adequate university preparation for a career in environmental science can also take different paths. For example, a degree in chemistry, geology, or biology can provide a solid educational basis, followed by graduate studies in environmental science. Good grades in the basic sciences, some experience as an intern or summer technician, and positive letters of recommendation should allow motivated students to get into a Master’s program. Environmental Science as a Career Environmental science is practiced by people in a wide variety of sub-fields. Engineering firms employ environmental scientists to evaluate the condition of future project sites. Consulting companies can assist with remediation, a process where previously polluted soil or groundwater is cleaned up and restored to acceptable conditions. In industrial settings, environmental engineers use science to find solutions to limit the amount of polluting emissions and effluents. There are state and federal employees who monitor air, water, and soil quality to preserve human health. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts an 11% growth in environmental science positions between the years 2016 and 2026. The median salary was $69,400 in 2017.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Answering assigned questions about Tesla Motors Company Assignment

Answering assigned questions about Tesla Motors Company - Assignment Example Global acquisition and mergers activity has gone up in the current year. The year has registered an increase in activities of acquisition and mergers because of a number of reasons including; favorable credit markets, increased cash amount on balance sheets of corporate organizations, decreased interest rates and rise in stock market strength. Acquisition and mergers have become an option for the companies due to elusive internal growth. The rampant consolidations have forced shareholders to support the move with the aim of ensuring their businesses are able to acquire market shares. Research has indicated a rise in shares of both the sellers and buyers related to the announcement of mergers and acquisitions. One of the rumors this year is the possibilities of apple acquiring or merging with the Tesla motors (Mangram & Edwin, 28). The chief executive of the two companies has been in discussion this year pertaining to the same. For a business to be able to be among the best firms in the world, tesla still has a long way to go. It requires a product lineup that is bigger and it also has to hit the points of mass market price. The company has to come up with effective ways or system in place that will be essential in ensuring the cars manufactured are well distributed. The company also needs an innovation in battery technology. A new battery that will take a long time before it is recharged is required by the business to drive the wheels of the vehicle. The company also need to continue being competitive in the market. The company has to deal with the tremendous work that is ahead of the enterprise (Mangram & Edwin, 60). The company can only make an impact in the market and solve the issue raised through merging and acquisition. The company can merge with a corporation such as apple that has already made an impa ct in the competitive world. The auto manufacturing market is so competitive in the current

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Roman History Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Roman History - Essay Example He opposed against Terentilius to draw laws and codes for the plebeians and aristocracy to benefit the plebeians. Therefore the agrarian question represents the basis of Roman history. When the Romans started to expand their territory, due to the greed of the land, the Romans were at war with neighbors. They built more new settlements on the captured land because the Senate was anxious about it. The agrarian law was a sore point for the republican and imperial Rome, for them the profession of the land surveyor (agrimeusor) was a national science. OR WAS WHAT THEY DIT BEST Thanks to allotment of public land colonies were turning into cities. The number of the Roman citizens was constantly growing and Rome was getting larger and stronger. Around 150 BC the empire was at the height of its power. Before the land property was undermined in Rome since the most ancient times. As well as in Greece, by a dangerous disaster namely debts. We can judge about the enormous value of promissory notes but not by means of historians, who used it to describe as dramatic scenes. The basis of Leges duodecim tabularum (The Law of the Twelve Tables), the most archaic fragments, defines the destiny of the poor debtor. The law Leges Liciniae Sextiae (the law of Gaius Licinius Stolo and Lucius Sextius Lateranus) limited the size of land ownership in the public land fund that could be owned by patricians. These actions expanded access of plebeians to land funds. The law lex Poetelia Papiria that passed in 326 B.C. cancelled the debt servitude, as stated in The Law of the Twelve Tables. The Roman wars with the barbarians to expand the territory undermined the basis of the Roman peasantry even more directly. Assuming more and more to increase the scale of Rome, the soldiers where moving away from Rome due to long wars, to fight and tore the soldier off from his land near Rome. The known balance between a decrease from war and gain of the settled country population was sustained when Romans had the possibility to make allotments in Northern Italy. By the middle of the 2nd century the stock of the free public land was exhausted and therefor the dispossession of land among the Roman citizens went even faster. This period in Roman history witnessed the changes in the Roman agriculture which had a fatal importance for small land ownership. Under Roman power, owing to expand territory, the trading intercourses of the Mediterranean Sea changed drastically. Bread for example began to be brought not only from Sicily, but also from Numidia and Egypt. The competition in agriculture with Italy destroyed the income and forced land owners to forget arable land and get cattle. We know most about these changes by the words of Marcus Porcius Cato, an excellent farmer who was asked: what is the most favorable way of economy. His answer was - bene pascere (good cattle breeding), bad cattle breeding, and then arable farming (arare). The peasants who were not able to find earnings at landowners and without having the possibility to change to cattle breeding due to insignificance of land suffered the first of all. They had to sell their lots, and that turned out as source of latifundia. Pliny the Younger explains this as that it has ruined Italy. In the

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Levi Strauss Essay Example for Free

Levi Strauss Essay As one attempts to assess the business ethics of Levi Strauss and Nike in this writing assignment, we are again compelled to revisit the critical distinction of conduct that is legal, yet still unethical. In both instances, Levi Strauss and Nike behaved with the parameters of legal conduct, yet few would argue that profiting from exploitive work conditions is an ethical behavior of any socially responsible organization (broad view social responsibility). Obviously, it’s very tempting to just condense this argument to the point of â€Å"bad companies boosting profits from lower labor costs via exploiting foreign workers in sweatshops†. I am going to take a much broader approach here in my assessment, as complete fairness to the two corporations here requires a bit of an indictment of the legal, regulatory, political, and socioeconomic environment that they operate in. So, let’s start there †¦ how is it that both of these large corporations are permitted (and driven) to outsource (with relative impunity) labor to countries with poor labor laws? In order to fairly assess their conduct, one must first examine the system under which they operate. How has corporate America gone down this path? Why do so many large U. S. corporations outsource labor en masse, which costs the U. S. economy so many jobs domestically? Let’s start by looking in the mirror and by that I mean you and I †¦ the U. S. consumer. Our thirst for cheap merchandise made overseas knows no limits. Do any of us look at the country of origin for goods, and if it’s non-U. S. do we even pause for a second to consider boycotting said goods due to loss of American jobs? Or boycott due to the nation of origin’s reputation for worker abuse? Of course we don’t. We want that Japanese high definition television from Wal-Mart that costs $100 less. We want the clothing from China or Indonesia that is 30% cheaper than similar brands made here. So, my first premise in this entire argument is that American consumers are NOT socially responsible in their purchasing habits. This lack of social responsibility on the demand side is a catalyst for Levi Strauss and Nike to seek cheaper labor overseas – for if they do not, their competitors assuredly will and they will be at a competitive disadvantage. Now, let’s assess the legal and regulatory environment under which both entities operate in the United States. Has Congress made it illegal to outsource labor to countries that they know are abusing their labor forces? In general, of course not. Congress maintains a blind eye to the problem, debating it over the years here and there in a politically motivated, half-hearted effort to occasionally placate certain voting segments (labor unions; displaced workers). Do they tougher their stance? Do they for one minute say to themselves, â€Å"this is really wrong, and socially irresponsible†? By inaction Congress is tacitly approving this practice, which of course is what powerful corporate lobbyists want. The profit motive has large U. S. corporations addicted to cheap labor now; Pandora’s Box has been opened and no one has the political will to attempt to close it. So let’s recap so far: we’ve indicted the U. S. consumer and our lawmakers in the legislative branch of the U. S. government (Congress) as major cultivators of the pro-outsourcing environment for which Levi Strauss and Nike must successfully operate under. Next on our list of socially irresponsible contributing parties – the judicial branch of the U.S. government. When the U. S. Supreme Court found in 2010 that the formation of so called â€Å"Super PACs† for campaign donations was legal, this gave corporations new powers under the law to, in effect, buy our government via opulent and obscene campaign spend funneled to candidates. The end result of this ruling is that corporations that profit greatly from outsourced labor are now able to pay for the elections of our Congressmen – and gee, wonder how this economic â€Å"favor† will be repaid when attempts to rein in outsourcing come up in Congress? Let’s move on to our two protagonists in this debate: Levi Strauss and Nike. Now that we’ve got the backdrop well in hand, and a reasonable person would agree that a massive systemic failure in the U. S. has allowed and promoted unchecked outsourcing of jobs, it’s time to discuss these two corporate giants and their respective behaviors here. Do these two corporations have a responsibility to monitor the conduct of the companies they do business within particular, their contractors and suppliers? As a personal believer in the broader view of corporate social  responsibility, I believe that they do. Notwithstanding the fact that all of this outsourcing is legal, and despite the mitigating factors that I’ve argued above that do alleviate these two companies of all of the blame – I still believe that they need to take the higher moral ground. Levi Strauss overall has conducted itself with far greater corporate social responsibility than Nike has, in my judgment. Strauss for many years withdrew from China due to their notoriety as a non-democratic country with abusive labor conditions. Regrettably, it had to re-enter China eventually to keep pace with competitors. Also, witness the way that Strauss treated its displaced U. S. workers as it (with some remorse) eventually had to close all its U. S. plants due to competition from outsourcers. Strauss gave generous severance and retraining dollars to the affected workers. In my estimation, Strauss has had to compromise its socially responsible corporate culture due to pressures from the warped competitive environment that was designed around them. It became a matter of survival for their corporation; their management had to adapt or risk failure and loss of the shareholders’ investments in the company. That is why I authored the overview above – I think it’s highly relevant to assessing Strauss’s conduct here. The system failed Levi Strauss – they wanted to behave under the broad definition of corporate social responsibility, but the demand for cheaper outsourced goods by consumers and the legality of outsourcing jobs (Congressional oversight failure) forced an adaptive change against their moral grain. Nike, however, is no apologist when it comes to their outsourcing. In fact, they are proud of it – even boasting that they pay outsourced workers higher than average wages for their region. To me, this is tantamount to bragging that â€Å"we don’t abuse those workers as badly as others do†. Frankly, that attitude offends my sensibilities and my personal set of ethical standards. I also deem it to be in direct conflict with the broader definition of corporate social responsibility. Lastly, I think that corporations have the obligation to take the ethical high ground and behave in a socially responsible manner (broad definition). That said, however, I do not believe that it’s a fair expectation to demand that high standard if adhering to same places the company’s very existence at risk due to systemic failures beyond their control. Levi Strauss attempted to â€Å"do the right thing†, but poor rules and oversight make competing in a broad ethical manner quite dangerous to its ultimate survival. Strauss’s example should serve as a wakeup call to U. S. consumers and our Congress: systemic change is needed, and it’s needed NOW.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Capital Punishment Essay - Death Penalty Needed :: Argumentative Persuasive Essays

Death Penalty Needed to Protect Society The death penalty is an issue that will continue to be debated over for many years to come. Some believe the death penalty should be abolished while others believe the death penalty should remain an option. Although there are things I would change dealing with the death penalty, I do not think it should be completely abolished. The death penalty should be administered to those who commit heinous crimes, whether it involves murder or not (Lopez, Camilla p.1). One can look at judicial history and tell that just because someone is sentenced to the death penalty does not mean it actually happens. People have become so liberal that they are willing to give everyone a second chance. People want to give the man who raped and murdered ten women in a matter of days the same second chance as the little boy who stole a candy bar from the grocery store . It might just be me, but I see a huge difference in the effect of those crimes on the rest of the population. Women are not going to live in fear about going to the grocery store because a little boy stole a candy bar, but they are going to think twice about going shopping by themselves at night when they've heard that a serial rapist and murderer is among them. I think all crimes should have an equal punishment, but I do not necessarily believe in the eye for an eye way of thinking. Remorse can so easily be faked which is why, I think, punishments and sentences have been lightened over the years. There are many cases and points that opponents to the death penalty bring up, but there are also several good points that pro-death penalty believers argue. Opponents of capital punishment believe the death penalty is not beneficial, but "we execute those who commit these atrocious crimes so that they do not have the chance to kill again" (Lopez, p.1). Heinous crimes seem to be no big deal and no shocking occurrence, like they used to be, which makes me very sad. The headlines are covered with people who have committed terrible crimes and sit on television laughing about what they've done, knowing they're not going to receive the death penalty for their crime. The government and the judicial system has now become a joke to people just as jail houses have become jokes to people living in them.

Monday, November 11, 2019

International Crime

Throughout the term we have encompassed an array of information pertaining to international criminal justice practices. The examination of past, present, and future trends facing global justice systems has led us to embark on research and topics for many different countries. This paper will cover the topics of social phenomenon, social behavior, legal traditions of contemporary society, Interpol and Europol, and what is forthcoming for future trends in international criminal justice practices.The difference in studying crime as a social phenomenon and in studying crime as a social behavior is that crime as a social phenomenon deals with the crime itself and crime as a social behavior deals with the person committing the crime. The person committing the crime tells the social behavior of the individual as well as the environmental status. The phenomenon deals with the crime itself not who committees it. â€Å"Comparative criminological thoughts do affect social phenomenon through soc ial behavior individuals place on others† (Reichel, 2008). The comparative criminological ideas help with the study of different criminal element through domestic, international, and transnational crime. These concepts, theories, and ideologies help researchers to come up with different methods to help for resolving the issue of social disorder. Criminal behavior helps contrive summaries on the issue of social phenomenon on transnational to international crime; furthermore, â€Å"crime as a form through social behavior does as a social phenomenon through different identities through patterns and summaries in countries worldwide† (Reichel, 2008). A great example of a social phenomenon would be the twitter phenomenon The recent announcement that social-networking phenomenon Twitter â€Å"has agreed to settle FTC charges that Twitter engaged in inadequate privacy and information-security practices illustrates some simple mistakes social media and other online companies can make† (ftc. gov). The crime that was committed by twitter was the releasing of information pertaining to an individual’s sense of privacy. In order to understand the magnitude of the social phenomenon on a more global scale we can look at myspace, twitter, linkedin, and facebook as resources. These social networks gather information from clients in order for individual companies to keep track of their consumers and are also used as informational portals for blogging, networking, and file sharing. With young people being able to watch satellite television or the Internet to see the pro-democracy uprisings in other countries, and could communicate with activists across social networks that the secret police have difficulty controlling, governments across the region have reason to fear of contagion. One recent example of the power of social phenomenon was the revolution that began in Egypt on the 25th of January 2011. â€Å"The protest consisted of street demonstrations, acts of civil disobedience, riots, marches, rallies, acts of civil disobedience, riots, labor strikes, and violent clashes throughout Egypt as part of a longer-term campaign of civil resistance† (law. com). Millions of protesters from a variety of social economic backgrounds and religions demanded the overthrow of the Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, along with an end to corruption and police repression, and democratic reforms of the political system. On the 11th of February, Mubarak resigned from office as a result of determined popular protest. These spiraling events were the end result of a facebook group who attracted 80,000 attendees. This goes to show how powerful social phenomenon’s were, can be, and will be in the future. Nigeria utilizes these social phenomenons for criminal purposes to gain access to important information like American birthdates, social security numbers and other vital information. The majority of the information gathered from these countries usually is gathered from social networks. Because lately Nigeria has been one of the top countries that has been listed in the forefront of the news for scams that have cost many individuals across the world money a closer look have been taken to prohibit these types of cybercrimes. Crimes people place among others throughout any organizations and society does affect the social and psychological motives on the person. The issues of international crimes help to explain the social and psychological motives throughout the globe. The images of social behavior help improve both theoretical and psychological motives that created individuals organizations to help to prevent violence throughout society. According to Reichel the comparative criminology does focus through social and psychological behaviors through community. The future of these cybercrimes is uncertain; furthermore, the more technology seems to increase the more technical and savvy criminals become. When considering the legal traditions of contemporary society a person would have to take into consideration many different attributes to determine the legal traditions. With reference to my personal opinion the three primary legal traditions are Common law, Religious law, and Contemporary law. â€Å"An argument can be made that a fourth tradition, socialist, exists on its own right but can also be considered and argued to be a part of civil law† (Reichel, 2008). Common law had its basis formed in Western Europe whereas civil law had its foundation in Roman times (Reichel, 2008). An apparent difference between civil and common law was the existence of common law in its relation to civil law. Common law was based on religious decisions from the Christian Church (Reichel, 2008). Islamic law has its foundation in a divine source but also incorporates the use of reasoning as well as â€Å"reasoning by analogy† (Reichel, 2008). Religious laws would be considered are religious law these are laws with that hold ethical, and moral standing. A great example is Hindu, Islamic, and etc. which rule by the basis on religion and old law. In simple religion and custom are laws. Contemporary law means the present and prevailing law. This states that laws will be referred to laws that are already in place in order to obtain a mutual consensus throughout the court system. The difference between legal systems and legal traditions is that legal systems are comprised of â€Å"legal institutions, procedures and rules† (Reichel, 2008). Legal traditions deal with the culture and historical attitudes of a society regarding law and how it should be applied (Reichel, 2008). â€Å"Common law had its basis formed in Western Europe whereas civil law had its foundation in Roman times† (Reichel, 2008). An apparent difference that I read between civil and common law was the existence of canon law in its relation to civil law. â€Å"Common law was based on religious decisions from the Christian Church† (Reichel, 2008). Islamic law has its foundation in a divine source but also incorporates the use of reasoning as well as â€Å"reasoning by analogy† (Reichel, 2008). In lament terminology common laws help to develop a better democratic form of governments; that helps prevent any acts of individual’s violation of his or her rights. Therefore, traditional laws help to develop a stronger republic to help protect an individual’s rights and liberties throughout modern world. Religious laws help to determine the action that came from the churches and how their ideological approach does help to improve society. Interpol in short stands for International Criminal Policing Organization. Its sole purpose is to oversee internationally crime trends and crack down international wrong doing. Interpol plays a major roll on the international scene in regards to policing because it’s the world’s largest international police organization. It encompasses approximately 188 countries globally and was created in 1923. â€Å"Interpol aims to facilitate international police co-operation even where diplomatic relations do not exist between particular countries. Action is taken within the limits of existing laws in different countries and in the spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Interpol’s constitution prohibits any intervention or activities of a political, military, religious or racial character† (inter. int). Europol in short stands for â€Å"European Law Enforcement Agency which aims at improving the effectiveness and co–operation of the competent authorities in the Member States in preventing and combating terrorism, unlawful drug trafficking and other serious forms of organized crime† (euro. ur). Europol is the law enforcement agency of the European Union. Our aim is to help achieve a safer Europe by supporting the law enforcement agencies of European Union member states in their fight against international serious crime and terrorism. More than 620 staff at Europol headquarters in The Hague, the Netherlands work closely with law enforcement agencies in the 27 European Union member states and in other non-EU partner states such as Australia, Canada, the USA and Norway† (euro. eur). These two different but very similar methods of trying to police in an effort to prevent and stop crime I feel is very beneficial globally. These two organizations contribute very greatly with regards to international policing. One focuses on European countries while the other focuses on international countries. Sharing vital statistics, crime trends, and data is the Achilles heel for both organizations. They both rely on information sharing with local agencies to produce productive results. For the prevention of international crimes both play major and important rolls with information and data sharing. This is a great system in place because now there isn’t really any criminal that can abscond from justice. Interpol /Europol concentrate on three broad categories of international criminal activity. â€Å"Both contributes to providing information terrorism and crimes against people and property, including crimes against children, trafficking in human beings, illegal immigration, automobile theft, and art theft; economic, financial, and computer crimes, including banking fraud, money laundering, corruption, and counterfeiting; and illegal drugs and criminal organizations, including organized crime† (inter. nt). Interpol’s everyday operations are managed by a General Secretariat under the direction of a secretary general, who is appointed for a five-year term by the General Assembly. Interpol was reorganized in 2001 following the September 11 attacks on the United States. The new post of executive director for police services was created to oversee several director ates, including those for regional and national police services, specialized crimes, and operational police support. In conclusion, the international criminal system does have its ups and downs. Based on the readings and discussions up to this point, it becomes very apparent that the futures of international criminal activities are uncertain. â€Å"There’s no question that terrorism, the growth of multicultural populations, massive migration, upheavals in age-composition demographics, technological developments, and globalization over the next three or more decades will affect the world’s criminal justice systems† (ojp. gov). The research predicts that global trends will play a significant role in how criminal justice is delivered throughout the world. This can be because of the dramatic growth in the number of foreign born Americans and suggests that increasing diversity in populations will have a significant impact not only in the United States but worldwide. Such growth has the potential for disharmony; furthermore, in South Africa, for example, the court system now recognizes eleven official languages. â€Å"As a result, lawyers may speak one language, the judge another, and the defendant, a third. Often, the only two people in the courtroom speaking the same language are the victim and defendant with the judge, prosecutor, and defense lawyer relying on interpreters† (ojp. gov). The lack of similarities extends beyond language to social norms and expectations can prove a huge problem for the future of international criminal justice. Ultimately, the priority over the next couple of decades should be to develop policies and technologies that will help policymakers, decision makers, and citizens establish a criminal justice system that is fair, equitable, and respectful.Reference http://www.ftc.gov/opa/2010/06/twitter.shtm http://www.interpol.int/public/icpo/default.asp http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/journals/255/2040.html

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Human Resource Professional Essay

Activity 1 The Human Resource Professional (HRP) Map displays a clear idea about the required HR skills, knowledge and behaviour to lead the organization to successes. The HRP Map covering of 10 professional areas, 8 behaviours and 4 bands. Sarah Miles (2009), CIPD organizational development director, said: â€Å"This is a complete rethink of professional standards, not just a simple face-lift, and that’s not something you can turn around in a short time. † Human resource professional areas describes what HRs need to know (knowledge) and what need to do (Activities) at four bands of professional capability in each HR professional area. The core professional areas of the HRP Map are Strategy, Insights and Solutions and Leading and Managing the Human Resource function. These are necessary for HRs in their main roles either in organization or in developing themselves. Remain eight professional areas as follows: employee engagement, employee relations, learning and talent development, organization design, organization development, performance and reward, resourcing talent planning and service delivery information. The Strategy, Insights and Solutions by using deep accurate thoughtful of the business activities, plans and strategy and fundamental encouragement of and difficulties to perform sustainability with the need of customers and unique insights to grow the performance of the business through establishing and delivering of human resources solutions and strategy. The Leading and Managing the Human Resource function by guiding and organizing customized human resources function depend on the need of the business requirements. Guarantees that the function has the exact capability, capacity and organization plan in which human resources employees are engaged, work team base and have deep understanding of organization with the drivers valued results. An HR professional needs to carry out the activities through some behaviour. Each behaviour is explained at the four bands of professional capability and lists a number of contra indicators which show negative behaviour. They are 8 which are collaborative, courage to challenge, curious, decisive thinker, driven to deliver, personally credible, role model and skilled influencer. My own selected professional area is the need to improve organization Development for Native Consultancy, Information Technology Company. The Activates, knowledge and behaviour at Band 1 which are most essential to my own HR role are in three points: * Knows employment law and discrimination law, in local and international rule and what the organization needs to do to prevent and monitor the risks. That can be done through collects, assembles and accurately analyses measures, data and feedback by using Labour law book, experts in local and international rules, and register in Labour law course. Respond to change in different ways for different cultures. Through promotes the organizational values and behaviours and recognises their interdependencies with organisational processes, structures, and ways of working. Read relevant researches, meetings with different culturally customers. Satisfy the customers with well communication skills. * Understands basic Organizational Development analytical tools and how to use it correctly. Co-ordinates and rolls out internal communication messages. By reading Articles, researches and case study about Organizational Development and its tools. Easy to apply the OD tools and uses one of it in the organization. The leading behaviours that are essential for this professional area to be done are driven to deliver – expresses willpower, creativity and reason to deliver the best results for the organisation, collaborative – Works efficiently in both inside and outside of the organisation with a range of people. And curious – Is curious and open-minded; seeks out innovative ways to add value to the organisation. Activity 2 To understand the needs of the customers and level of satisfaction, the HR have to continually monitor the needs and how it has been meeting those needs and recognaize any areas that has gaps. This way of analysis will find out the real view of the customers’ needs and will guide the HR professional to balance several perspective and determining which get priority. â€Å"For instance, managers may value high levels of production and long work hours whereas employees may value more time off and a focus on work/life needs. Effective HR customer service will work with both groups to find the right balance† Leigh Richards (2012), eHow Contributor. The customers verify in two types, internal and external. Here we will consider the internal customers for its direct effects on the company and its ongoing processes as employees, managers and technicians. Their needs are differ as training, reports, CVs, tools and hardware and sometime conflict with others. In the divergent of the customers need; the HR professional have to take accurate and impartial clear decision on that. The HR choice will depend on the most important and effective on the organization in a timely manner as the training in the development of new strategy or plan before other needs. To communicate effectively in the organization between customers; e-mails, chats (WhatsApp/BlackBerry/Skype) and direct phone calls are most useful. E-mails are used as formal communication tool between different customers and can be archived for future need but it can be a reason to delay the response either by the user or by telecommunications’ problems. Otherwise the chats and calls can retrieve with direct reply and helpful for urgent issues but as usual cannot be used later for its instantly unsaved answers. An effective work relationship with employees leads to a positive environment. The colleagues, supervisors and management will respect the decisions and contributions results from a collaborative team. â€Å"Maintaining an effective relationship with co-workers takes effort, such as regular communication† Cherrine Banks (2009), the eHow Contributor. Key to any successful HR-line manager relationship is communication. Although the structure of HR is important, success is more about the relationships you build with line managers. Any particular structure that is working now, is reviewed to ensure the HR framework continues to support them,† La Penna (2007). Complaints are found in every organization and business. The most common solutions are Listening, Solving and being polite. Firstly listening to what the customer has to say and ask for as many details as possible. Classify the problem. Then offer a solution before other requests one within a clear policy to know how far you are willing to go for solving the complaints. Be thankful and polite while listening and solving the problem. Be careful on the tone used and body language to solve the problem effectively. Difficult employees display behaviors that can be uncomfortable and backfired to the goals of the organization. The behaviors of a difficult employee can range from stable conversation to rejection to complete the job tasks and its responsibilities. Other difficult behaviors include neglect of colleagues and waste of company belongings. It is important for managers to identify, walk in and stop the actions of difficult employees before more harm is done. How difficult a person is for you to deal with depends on your self-esteem, your self-confidence and your professional courage. † Susan M. Heathfield (2011), Human Resources expert and covered Human Resources for About. com since 2000. HR professional has to explore and brainstorm some solutions with a trusted experienced friend or colleague. Approach the person whom having the problem with private and open a discussion with agreement toward positive actions. The Following up is essential with this person. If the difficult customer didn’t changed positively, the transferring process to new department or job within the organization will be helpful. Time is main effective factor for providing services. Commitments with the deadlines and within the organization roles will effects it toward success. Some services are depending on each other in prioritized and sequence way; so it have be done carefully with respect to the start day and the duration without any dely. Once time is left, the process of finalizing the work have to be faster and will affect other tasks and maybe will consume more recourses, time and money. Dearing the current situation of market, the organizations cannot afford everything needed for the customers. The budget has shortage and the business is returning less profit than before. From that point, the HR practitioner can handle the customized budget in smart way. As purchasing printer one for each department and can be non-colour printing for all except those in need for colour as advertisement department. As well the printing can be converted to be digitally e-mailed or uploaded to the organizations website. Brad Power (2011) writes about this in â€Å"Why Doesn’t HR Lead Change? He defers to Dave Ulrich, a University of Michigan professor recognized by HR Magazine as the most influential person in HR, who said there are three human resources processes that are critical to embedding a culture of continuous improvement: talent flow, rewards and training and development. Firstly, for the talent flow, HR experts can develop method for hiring who are familiar with the attitudes and behaviors of their company. Managers are hired for expertise, not attitude and behavior. The attitude and behavior that support the direction of the company are necessary to continues improvement. The Rewards is a â€Å"Continuous improvement demands that people not only carry out their jobs, but improve their work too,† writes Power. Training and Development is important at the organization. If it does not afford the knowledge and skills customers need to improve their work, its mean that continuous improvement isn’t important. According to the power for leading change, HR professional must use its influence to help leaders focus on customers, long-term business outcomes, and building competences in their people; be a partner; and get operational experience.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Definition and Exampes in English Grammar

Definition and Exampes in English Grammar A diminutive is a word form or suffix that indicates smallness. Also called  hypocoristic. In his Dictionary of English Grammar (2000), R.L. Trask points out that the English language usually forms diminutives by suffixing -y or -ie, often to a reduced form of the source word, as in hanky for a handkerchief, doggie for dog and Tommie for Thomas. But we also use -ette, as in statuette and kitchenette. Other examples of diminutives include  booklet, a small book; circlet, a small circle; duckling, a young duck; hillock  a small hill; novelette, a short novel; wavelet, a ripple or small wave; rivulet, a small brook or stream; gosling, a young goose; coronet, a small crown; eyelet, a small hole; and  droplet, a tiny drop. Etymology From the Latin deminut, to lessen Example My parents named me William, but my friends call me Billy or just Bill. Except for one aunt who calls me Willy. Diminutive Derivation [I]n English, productive diminutive derivation hardly exists at all, despite the existence of isolated baby forms such as handies, doggie or birdie (one can say girlie but not *mannie, auntie but not *unclie, horsie but not *goatie, and so on. The Trick of Shrinking A charming trick almost every language has is the shrinking of someone or something you like by the use of diminutives. The diminutive of Charles is Charlie. The diminutive of William is Billy. The diminutive of star is starlet. The diminutive of pig is piglet. The Olympics of diminutives is won hands-down by the Italians, who have literally dozens of different forms of the diminutive, each conveying its own special nuance of feeling for the noun undergoing the shrinking. A Borrowed Italian Diminutive The food is so good because the ingredients are excellent, like the bread that is made especially for ino at Blue Ribbon Bakery down the block. But ino, a word ending that is an all-purpose Italian diminutive, also offers a European-style warmth. Contrasting Attitudes Toward Diminutives Traditionally, the term diminutive has been used to refer to words which denote smallness and possibly also expressing an attitude. The expressed attitude can be either positive or negative, i.e. either affectionate or derogatory, depending on the specific interplay of linguistic and situational factors in a given context. Diminutives are titles of endearment. Dr. Johnson calling Goldsmith Goldy did equal honor to both. Fanny is a patronizing diminutive. It makes the author [Frances Burney] sound the harmless, childish, priggish girl-woman that many critics want her to beas if the heroine of Mansfield Park has set up as a novelist. Let her have an adult full name. Pronunciation di-MIN-you-tif Sources David Klass,  You Dont Know Me. Square Fish, 2001 Anna Wierzbicka,  Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: The Semantics of Human Interaction. Walter de Gruyter, 1991 (Barry Farber,  How to Learn Any Language. Citadel, 1991 Eric Asimov, An Italian Sandwich Shop That Takes the Diminutive.  The New York Times, February 10, 1999 Margaret Anne Doody,  Frances Burney: The Life in the Works. Rutgers University Press, 1988

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Cleave, Cleaver, and Clove

Cleave, Cleaver, and Clove Cleave, Cleaver, and Clove Cleave, Cleaver, and Clove By Maeve Maddox Sophia Bailey asks about the word cleave: Can you please explain cleave. On one hand it means to separate (cleaver butcher) and on the other it means to cling to (cleave to bosom). Huh? Old English had two verbs that have come to be spelled the same way in modern English: clifian: to adhere, to stick cleofan: to split, to separate Note: In these OE words, the letter f stands for the v sound. From clifian we get the cleave that means adhere or stick (in the glutinous sense). Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh. (Genesis 2:24, King James version) She cleaved to him, and he could feel his blood changing like quicksilver (D.H. Lawrence, Women in Love (1920) Already married to a man who had ended up in prison, she cleaved to the outlaw†¦ (blog about Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow, with a 1995-2005 copyright notice.) †¦she cleaved to her Baptist views until her death. (a book review dated 1999) From cleofan we get the cleave that means cut in two. Order a side of beefthat’s half a cow, roughly 300 poundsand get it cut and cleaved any way you like. (ad for a meat company) A gyrocopter pilot drove towards a hunt supporter who was trying to stop him from taking off, cleaving his head from top to bottom, ..(grim story in the Telegraph, 19 October 2010) Cleofian was a strong verb in OE so we also have the past form clove: [they] conducted him into a vast room, clove a passage for him through the assembled nobility of England, [The knight] cut through all his head armour and his skin and his flesh and clove him in twain. he clove the rock, and the waters gushed out. .. the king seized hold of a huge sledge-hammer, and swinging it round his head, struck it with such force upon the anvil that he clove the massive block of iron in twain†¦, From cleofian we also get the words cleft, cloven and cleavage. Cleft can be used as a noun, as in a cleft in the rock, or as a an adjective meaning split or bifurcated. A cleft palate is a malformation involving a split or gap in the palate. The expression, to find oneself in a cleft stick, means to be in a dilemma, to be unable to go forward or return to ones initial position. The hoof of a pig or a goat can be described either as a cleft hoof or a cloven hoof. The latter has diabolical connotations because the Devil is often depicted in art as having the feet of a goat. The word cleavage is much used by geologists, biologists, and writers of celebrity gossip. cleavage: The action of cleaving or splitting crystals and certain rocks along their lines of natural fissure; the state of being so cleft. cleavage: Cell-division, segmentation. cleavage: The cleft between a womans breasts as revealed by a low-cut dà ©colletage. (colloquial) A cleaver, of course, is a butchers cutting tool. It can be of any shape, but the shape most often associated with it is that of a small hatchet. The noun clove, meaning the pointy bit that breaks off a bulb of garlic, is related to OE cleofian, to split. The noun clove meaning the spice comes from a word meaning nail, Anglo-French clowes, French clou, Latin clavus. Cloves are the dried flowerbuds of an evergreen tree. They resemble nails. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Apply to, Apply for, and Apply with20 Words Meaning "Being or Existing in the Past"Comma After Introductory Phrases

Saturday, November 2, 2019

UK Commercial law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

UK Commercial law - Essay Example This essay will primarily cover the niceties of agency law governing the relationship between Iffy and Victor. It will also touch upon the sales law, both international and domestic, relating to the relationship between Iffy and the Chinese automotive seller and also with the UK car dealers. Because of the handicap of Iffy, having neither experience of dealing with the Chinese automotive industry nor any contacts therein, it will be necessary for them to hire the services of Victor by appointing him as their agent to deal with the Chinese in their stead for the delivery of a certain number of utility vehicles, spare parts and accessories. Indeed, this is so because a limited company can only act through its human agents,1 whether through its own directors, employees or through independent agents. I would prepare for Iffy the agency2 agreement, through which Victor will deal with the Chinese automotive executives, empowering him to negotiate and constitute a contract or contracts between Iffy and chosen Chinese auto manufacturing or dealer company or companies, as agent3 in the name of Iffy, together with the necessary instructions and document forms needed for the transactions. In the present case, I will be preparing the necessary documents to be signed by the proper company officers with the agent's conformity. The provisions of the agency agreement shall task Victor with negotiating and executing the necessary contracts for the importation of the chosen automobiles and effecting the proper secure means of delivery of the same vehicles to UK for distribution to sellers. In the present case, the agency agreement would oblige Victor to expressly name his principal, considering that there are no facts in the case that would tend to obstruct the consummation of the contract or contracts should the Chinese know of Iffy's identity. The agreement would also contain provisions on the required methods of shipping the vehicles and the means of payment. It is very crucial considering that the business transaction will be made outside of UK that the terms and conditions of the agency be expressly laid out in black and white. It is necessary for Iffy as principal to lay down the terms and conditions of the employment or to employ the agent in a specific position in the company in order for the tasks to be deducible from the very position itself. I would advise Iffy that the agency agreement between them and Victor binds both of them to the following consequences, in terms of rights and duties expressly imposed by law, jurisprudence and regulations: Iffy must remember that Victor has the following rights against them, which rights Victor can enforce in the proper judicial forum. 1. Right to remuneration4 - Victor will be entitled to the consideration based on the contract or in quantum meruit according to the extent of his performance of its terms. Furthermore, Victor as agent will be entitled to retainer or commission or royalty from Iffy for every vehicle imported even after the termination of the agency pursuant to common law rules and the Reg. 8, 1993 Commercial Agents (Council Directive).5 2. Right to indemnity - He will also be entitled to indemnity or restitution and refund