Tuesday, November 26, 2019

The Life and Work of Howard S. Becker

The Life and Work of Howard S. Becker Howard S. Howie Becker is an American sociologist renowned for his qualitative research into the lives of those otherwise classified as deviant, and for revolutionizing how deviant behavior is studied and theorized within the discipline. The development of the subfield focused on deviance is credited to him, as is  labeling theory. He also made significant contributions to the sociology of art. His most notable books include  Outsiders  (1963),  Art Worlds  (1982),  What About Mozart? What About Murder?  (2015).  Most of his career was spent as a professor of sociology at Northwestern University.   Early Life Born in 1928 in Chicago, IL, Becker is now technically retired but continues to teach and write in San Francisco, CA, and Paris, France. One of the most prolific living sociologists, he has about 200 publications to his name, including 13 books. Becker has been awarded six honorary degrees, and in 1998 was given the award for Career of Distinguished Scholarship by the American Sociological Association. His scholarship has been supported by the Ford Foundation, the Guggenheim Foundation, and the MacArthur Foundation. Becker served as President of the Society for the Study of Social Problems from 1965-66, and is a lifelong jazz pianist. Becker earned Bachelors, Masters, and Doctorate degrees in sociology from the University of Chicago, studying with those considered a part of the Chicago School of Sociology, including Everett C. Hughes, Georg Simmel, and Robert E. Park. Becker himself is considered a part of the Chicago School. His career in studying those considered deviant began thanks to his exposure to marijuana smoking at Chicagos jazz bars, where he regularly played piano. One of his earliest research projects focused on marijuana use. This research fed into his widely read and cited book  Outsiders, which is considered one of the first texts to develop labeling theory, which postulates that people adopt deviant behavior that breaks social norms after they have been labeled deviant by others, by social institutions, and by the criminal justice system. Importance of His Work The importance of this work is that it shifts analytic focus away from individuals and to social structures and relations, which allows for the social forces at play in producing deviance to be seen, understood, and changed, if need be. Beckers groundbreaking research resonates today in the work of sociologists who study how institutions, including schools, use racial stereotypes to label students of color as deviant problems that must be managed by the criminal justice system, rather than in-school punishment. Beckers book  Art Worlds  made important contributions to the subfield of the sociology of art. His work shifted the conversation from individual artists to the whole field of social relations that make the production, distribution, and valuation of art possible. This text also proved influential to the sociology of media, media studies, and cultural studies. Another important contribution that Becker made to sociology was to write his books and articles in an engaging and readable way that made them accessible to a wide audience. He wrote prolifically also on the important role that good writing plays in disseminating the results of sociological research. His books on this topic, which also serve as writing guides, include  Writing for Social Scientists,  The Tricks of the Trade, and  Telling About Society. Learn More About Howie Becker You can find much of Beckers writing on his website, where he also shares his music, photos, and favorite quotes. To learn more about Beckers fascinating life as a jazz musician/sociologist, check out this in-depth 2015 profile of him in  The New Yorker.

Friday, November 22, 2019

A Definition of Environmental Science

A Definition of Environmental Science Environmental science is the study of the interactions between the physical, chemical, and biological components of nature. As such, it is a multidisciplinary science: it involves a number of disciplines like geology, hydrology, soil sciences, plant physiology, and ecology. Environmental scientists may have training in more than one discipline; for example, a geochemist has expertise in both geology and chemistry. Most often, the multidisciplinary nature of environmental scientists’ work comes from collaborations they foster with other scientists from complementary research fields. A Problem-Solving Science Environmental scientists rarely just study natural systems, but instead usually work towards solving problems stemming from our interactions with the environment. Normally the basic approach taken by environmental scientists first involves using data to detect a problem and evaluate its extent. Solutions to the issue are then designed and implemented. Finally, monitoring is done to determine whether the problem was fixed. Some examples of the types of projects environmental scientists may be involved with include: Coordinating cleanup efforts at an abandoned oil refinery labeled as a Superfund site, determining the extent of the pollution problem and putting together a restoration plan.Forecasting the effects of global climate change and sea level rise on a coastal bay system, and assisting with finding solutions to limit damages on coastal wetlands, shoreline property, and public infrastructure.Consulting with a construction team to help them with minimizing sediment pollution coming from the site of a future grocery store.Assisting the managers of a state government’s fleet of vehicles with taking steps to reducing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions.Designing a restoration plan to bring acreage of oak savanna in the proper ecological state to host the endangered Karner blue butterfly and its host plant, the blue lupine. A Quantitative Science To evaluate the condition of a field site, the health of an animal population, or the quality of a stream most scientific approaches require extensive data collection. That data then needs to be summarized with a suite of descriptive statistics, then used to verify if a particular hypothesis is supported or not. This type of hypothesis testing requires complex statistical tools. Trained statisticians are often part of large research teams to assist with complicated statistical models. Other types of models are often used by environmental scientists. For example, hydrological models help understand groundwater flow and the spread of spilled pollutants, and spatial models implemented in a geographical information system (GIS) will help track deforestation and habitat fragmentation in remote areas. An Education in Environmental Science Whether it is a Bachelor of Arts (BA) or Bachelor of Science (BS), a university degree in environmental science can lead to a wide range of professional roles. Classes typically include earth science and biology courses, statistics, and core courses teaching sampling and analytical techniques specific to the environmental field. Students generally complete outdoor sampling exercises as well as inside laboratory work. Elective courses are usually available to provide students with the appropriate context surrounding environmental issues, including politics, economics, social sciences, and history. Adequate university preparation for a career in environmental science can also take different paths. For example, a degree in chemistry, geology, or biology can provide a solid educational basis, followed by graduate studies in environmental science. Good grades in the basic sciences, some experience as an intern or summer technician, and positive letters of recommendation should allow motivated students to get into a Master’s program. Environmental Science as a Career Environmental science is practiced by people in a wide variety of sub-fields. Engineering firms employ environmental scientists to evaluate the condition of future project sites. Consulting companies can assist with remediation, a process where previously polluted soil or groundwater is cleaned up and restored to acceptable conditions. In industrial settings, environmental engineers use science to find solutions to limit the amount of polluting emissions and effluents. There are state and federal employees who monitor air, water, and soil quality to preserve human health. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts an 11% growth in environmental science positions between the years 2016 and 2026. The median salary was $69,400 in 2017.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Answering assigned questions about Tesla Motors Company Assignment

Answering assigned questions about Tesla Motors Company - Assignment Example Global acquisition and mergers activity has gone up in the current year. The year has registered an increase in activities of acquisition and mergers because of a number of reasons including; favorable credit markets, increased cash amount on balance sheets of corporate organizations, decreased interest rates and rise in stock market strength. Acquisition and mergers have become an option for the companies due to elusive internal growth. The rampant consolidations have forced shareholders to support the move with the aim of ensuring their businesses are able to acquire market shares. Research has indicated a rise in shares of both the sellers and buyers related to the announcement of mergers and acquisitions. One of the rumors this year is the possibilities of apple acquiring or merging with the Tesla motors (Mangram & Edwin, 28). The chief executive of the two companies has been in discussion this year pertaining to the same. For a business to be able to be among the best firms in the world, tesla still has a long way to go. It requires a product lineup that is bigger and it also has to hit the points of mass market price. The company has to come up with effective ways or system in place that will be essential in ensuring the cars manufactured are well distributed. The company also needs an innovation in battery technology. A new battery that will take a long time before it is recharged is required by the business to drive the wheels of the vehicle. The company also need to continue being competitive in the market. The company has to deal with the tremendous work that is ahead of the enterprise (Mangram & Edwin, 60). The company can only make an impact in the market and solve the issue raised through merging and acquisition. The company can merge with a corporation such as apple that has already made an impa ct in the competitive world. The auto manufacturing market is so competitive in the current

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Roman History Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Roman History - Essay Example He opposed against Terentilius to draw laws and codes for the plebeians and aristocracy to benefit the plebeians. Therefore the agrarian question represents the basis of Roman history. When the Romans started to expand their territory, due to the greed of the land, the Romans were at war with neighbors. They built more new settlements on the captured land because the Senate was anxious about it. The agrarian law was a sore point for the republican and imperial Rome, for them the profession of the land surveyor (agrimeusor) was a national science. OR WAS WHAT THEY DIT BEST Thanks to allotment of public land colonies were turning into cities. The number of the Roman citizens was constantly growing and Rome was getting larger and stronger. Around 150 BC the empire was at the height of its power. Before the land property was undermined in Rome since the most ancient times. As well as in Greece, by a dangerous disaster namely debts. We can judge about the enormous value of promissory notes but not by means of historians, who used it to describe as dramatic scenes. The basis of Leges duodecim tabularum (The Law of the Twelve Tables), the most archaic fragments, defines the destiny of the poor debtor. The law Leges Liciniae Sextiae (the law of Gaius Licinius Stolo and Lucius Sextius Lateranus) limited the size of land ownership in the public land fund that could be owned by patricians. These actions expanded access of plebeians to land funds. The law lex Poetelia Papiria that passed in 326 B.C. cancelled the debt servitude, as stated in The Law of the Twelve Tables. The Roman wars with the barbarians to expand the territory undermined the basis of the Roman peasantry even more directly. Assuming more and more to increase the scale of Rome, the soldiers where moving away from Rome due to long wars, to fight and tore the soldier off from his land near Rome. The known balance between a decrease from war and gain of the settled country population was sustained when Romans had the possibility to make allotments in Northern Italy. By the middle of the 2nd century the stock of the free public land was exhausted and therefor the dispossession of land among the Roman citizens went even faster. This period in Roman history witnessed the changes in the Roman agriculture which had a fatal importance for small land ownership. Under Roman power, owing to expand territory, the trading intercourses of the Mediterranean Sea changed drastically. Bread for example began to be brought not only from Sicily, but also from Numidia and Egypt. The competition in agriculture with Italy destroyed the income and forced land owners to forget arable land and get cattle. We know most about these changes by the words of Marcus Porcius Cato, an excellent farmer who was asked: what is the most favorable way of economy. His answer was - bene pascere (good cattle breeding), bad cattle breeding, and then arable farming (arare). The peasants who were not able to find earnings at landowners and without having the possibility to change to cattle breeding due to insignificance of land suffered the first of all. They had to sell their lots, and that turned out as source of latifundia. Pliny the Younger explains this as that it has ruined Italy. In the

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Levi Strauss Essay Example for Free

Levi Strauss Essay As one attempts to assess the business ethics of Levi Strauss and Nike in this writing assignment, we are again compelled to revisit the critical distinction of conduct that is legal, yet still unethical. In both instances, Levi Strauss and Nike behaved with the parameters of legal conduct, yet few would argue that profiting from exploitive work conditions is an ethical behavior of any socially responsible organization (broad view social responsibility). Obviously, it’s very tempting to just condense this argument to the point of â€Å"bad companies boosting profits from lower labor costs via exploiting foreign workers in sweatshops†. I am going to take a much broader approach here in my assessment, as complete fairness to the two corporations here requires a bit of an indictment of the legal, regulatory, political, and socioeconomic environment that they operate in. So, let’s start there †¦ how is it that both of these large corporations are permitted (and driven) to outsource (with relative impunity) labor to countries with poor labor laws? In order to fairly assess their conduct, one must first examine the system under which they operate. How has corporate America gone down this path? Why do so many large U. S. corporations outsource labor en masse, which costs the U. S. economy so many jobs domestically? Let’s start by looking in the mirror and by that I mean you and I †¦ the U. S. consumer. Our thirst for cheap merchandise made overseas knows no limits. Do any of us look at the country of origin for goods, and if it’s non-U. S. do we even pause for a second to consider boycotting said goods due to loss of American jobs? Or boycott due to the nation of origin’s reputation for worker abuse? Of course we don’t. We want that Japanese high definition television from Wal-Mart that costs $100 less. We want the clothing from China or Indonesia that is 30% cheaper than similar brands made here. So, my first premise in this entire argument is that American consumers are NOT socially responsible in their purchasing habits. This lack of social responsibility on the demand side is a catalyst for Levi Strauss and Nike to seek cheaper labor overseas – for if they do not, their competitors assuredly will and they will be at a competitive disadvantage. Now, let’s assess the legal and regulatory environment under which both entities operate in the United States. Has Congress made it illegal to outsource labor to countries that they know are abusing their labor forces? In general, of course not. Congress maintains a blind eye to the problem, debating it over the years here and there in a politically motivated, half-hearted effort to occasionally placate certain voting segments (labor unions; displaced workers). Do they tougher their stance? Do they for one minute say to themselves, â€Å"this is really wrong, and socially irresponsible†? By inaction Congress is tacitly approving this practice, which of course is what powerful corporate lobbyists want. The profit motive has large U. S. corporations addicted to cheap labor now; Pandora’s Box has been opened and no one has the political will to attempt to close it. So let’s recap so far: we’ve indicted the U. S. consumer and our lawmakers in the legislative branch of the U. S. government (Congress) as major cultivators of the pro-outsourcing environment for which Levi Strauss and Nike must successfully operate under. Next on our list of socially irresponsible contributing parties – the judicial branch of the U.S. government. When the U. S. Supreme Court found in 2010 that the formation of so called â€Å"Super PACs† for campaign donations was legal, this gave corporations new powers under the law to, in effect, buy our government via opulent and obscene campaign spend funneled to candidates. The end result of this ruling is that corporations that profit greatly from outsourced labor are now able to pay for the elections of our Congressmen – and gee, wonder how this economic â€Å"favor† will be repaid when attempts to rein in outsourcing come up in Congress? Let’s move on to our two protagonists in this debate: Levi Strauss and Nike. Now that we’ve got the backdrop well in hand, and a reasonable person would agree that a massive systemic failure in the U. S. has allowed and promoted unchecked outsourcing of jobs, it’s time to discuss these two corporate giants and their respective behaviors here. Do these two corporations have a responsibility to monitor the conduct of the companies they do business within particular, their contractors and suppliers? As a personal believer in the broader view of corporate social  responsibility, I believe that they do. Notwithstanding the fact that all of this outsourcing is legal, and despite the mitigating factors that I’ve argued above that do alleviate these two companies of all of the blame – I still believe that they need to take the higher moral ground. Levi Strauss overall has conducted itself with far greater corporate social responsibility than Nike has, in my judgment. Strauss for many years withdrew from China due to their notoriety as a non-democratic country with abusive labor conditions. Regrettably, it had to re-enter China eventually to keep pace with competitors. Also, witness the way that Strauss treated its displaced U. S. workers as it (with some remorse) eventually had to close all its U. S. plants due to competition from outsourcers. Strauss gave generous severance and retraining dollars to the affected workers. In my estimation, Strauss has had to compromise its socially responsible corporate culture due to pressures from the warped competitive environment that was designed around them. It became a matter of survival for their corporation; their management had to adapt or risk failure and loss of the shareholders’ investments in the company. That is why I authored the overview above – I think it’s highly relevant to assessing Strauss’s conduct here. The system failed Levi Strauss – they wanted to behave under the broad definition of corporate social responsibility, but the demand for cheaper outsourced goods by consumers and the legality of outsourcing jobs (Congressional oversight failure) forced an adaptive change against their moral grain. Nike, however, is no apologist when it comes to their outsourcing. In fact, they are proud of it – even boasting that they pay outsourced workers higher than average wages for their region. To me, this is tantamount to bragging that â€Å"we don’t abuse those workers as badly as others do†. Frankly, that attitude offends my sensibilities and my personal set of ethical standards. I also deem it to be in direct conflict with the broader definition of corporate social responsibility. Lastly, I think that corporations have the obligation to take the ethical high ground and behave in a socially responsible manner (broad definition). That said, however, I do not believe that it’s a fair expectation to demand that high standard if adhering to same places the company’s very existence at risk due to systemic failures beyond their control. Levi Strauss attempted to â€Å"do the right thing†, but poor rules and oversight make competing in a broad ethical manner quite dangerous to its ultimate survival. Strauss’s example should serve as a wakeup call to U. S. consumers and our Congress: systemic change is needed, and it’s needed NOW.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Capital Punishment Essay - Death Penalty Needed :: Argumentative Persuasive Essays

Death Penalty Needed to Protect Society The death penalty is an issue that will continue to be debated over for many years to come. Some believe the death penalty should be abolished while others believe the death penalty should remain an option. Although there are things I would change dealing with the death penalty, I do not think it should be completely abolished. The death penalty should be administered to those who commit heinous crimes, whether it involves murder or not (Lopez, Camilla p.1). One can look at judicial history and tell that just because someone is sentenced to the death penalty does not mean it actually happens. People have become so liberal that they are willing to give everyone a second chance. People want to give the man who raped and murdered ten women in a matter of days the same second chance as the little boy who stole a candy bar from the grocery store . It might just be me, but I see a huge difference in the effect of those crimes on the rest of the population. Women are not going to live in fear about going to the grocery store because a little boy stole a candy bar, but they are going to think twice about going shopping by themselves at night when they've heard that a serial rapist and murderer is among them. I think all crimes should have an equal punishment, but I do not necessarily believe in the eye for an eye way of thinking. Remorse can so easily be faked which is why, I think, punishments and sentences have been lightened over the years. There are many cases and points that opponents to the death penalty bring up, but there are also several good points that pro-death penalty believers argue. Opponents of capital punishment believe the death penalty is not beneficial, but "we execute those who commit these atrocious crimes so that they do not have the chance to kill again" (Lopez, p.1). Heinous crimes seem to be no big deal and no shocking occurrence, like they used to be, which makes me very sad. The headlines are covered with people who have committed terrible crimes and sit on television laughing about what they've done, knowing they're not going to receive the death penalty for their crime. The government and the judicial system has now become a joke to people just as jail houses have become jokes to people living in them.

Monday, November 11, 2019

International Crime

Throughout the term we have encompassed an array of information pertaining to international criminal justice practices. The examination of past, present, and future trends facing global justice systems has led us to embark on research and topics for many different countries. This paper will cover the topics of social phenomenon, social behavior, legal traditions of contemporary society, Interpol and Europol, and what is forthcoming for future trends in international criminal justice practices.The difference in studying crime as a social phenomenon and in studying crime as a social behavior is that crime as a social phenomenon deals with the crime itself and crime as a social behavior deals with the person committing the crime. The person committing the crime tells the social behavior of the individual as well as the environmental status. The phenomenon deals with the crime itself not who committees it. â€Å"Comparative criminological thoughts do affect social phenomenon through soc ial behavior individuals place on others† (Reichel, 2008). The comparative criminological ideas help with the study of different criminal element through domestic, international, and transnational crime. These concepts, theories, and ideologies help researchers to come up with different methods to help for resolving the issue of social disorder. Criminal behavior helps contrive summaries on the issue of social phenomenon on transnational to international crime; furthermore, â€Å"crime as a form through social behavior does as a social phenomenon through different identities through patterns and summaries in countries worldwide† (Reichel, 2008). A great example of a social phenomenon would be the twitter phenomenon The recent announcement that social-networking phenomenon Twitter â€Å"has agreed to settle FTC charges that Twitter engaged in inadequate privacy and information-security practices illustrates some simple mistakes social media and other online companies can make† (ftc. gov). The crime that was committed by twitter was the releasing of information pertaining to an individual’s sense of privacy. In order to understand the magnitude of the social phenomenon on a more global scale we can look at myspace, twitter, linkedin, and facebook as resources. These social networks gather information from clients in order for individual companies to keep track of their consumers and are also used as informational portals for blogging, networking, and file sharing. With young people being able to watch satellite television or the Internet to see the pro-democracy uprisings in other countries, and could communicate with activists across social networks that the secret police have difficulty controlling, governments across the region have reason to fear of contagion. One recent example of the power of social phenomenon was the revolution that began in Egypt on the 25th of January 2011. â€Å"The protest consisted of street demonstrations, acts of civil disobedience, riots, marches, rallies, acts of civil disobedience, riots, labor strikes, and violent clashes throughout Egypt as part of a longer-term campaign of civil resistance† (law. com). Millions of protesters from a variety of social economic backgrounds and religions demanded the overthrow of the Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, along with an end to corruption and police repression, and democratic reforms of the political system. On the 11th of February, Mubarak resigned from office as a result of determined popular protest. These spiraling events were the end result of a facebook group who attracted 80,000 attendees. This goes to show how powerful social phenomenon’s were, can be, and will be in the future. Nigeria utilizes these social phenomenons for criminal purposes to gain access to important information like American birthdates, social security numbers and other vital information. The majority of the information gathered from these countries usually is gathered from social networks. Because lately Nigeria has been one of the top countries that has been listed in the forefront of the news for scams that have cost many individuals across the world money a closer look have been taken to prohibit these types of cybercrimes. Crimes people place among others throughout any organizations and society does affect the social and psychological motives on the person. The issues of international crimes help to explain the social and psychological motives throughout the globe. The images of social behavior help improve both theoretical and psychological motives that created individuals organizations to help to prevent violence throughout society. According to Reichel the comparative criminology does focus through social and psychological behaviors through community. The future of these cybercrimes is uncertain; furthermore, the more technology seems to increase the more technical and savvy criminals become. When considering the legal traditions of contemporary society a person would have to take into consideration many different attributes to determine the legal traditions. With reference to my personal opinion the three primary legal traditions are Common law, Religious law, and Contemporary law. â€Å"An argument can be made that a fourth tradition, socialist, exists on its own right but can also be considered and argued to be a part of civil law† (Reichel, 2008). Common law had its basis formed in Western Europe whereas civil law had its foundation in Roman times (Reichel, 2008). An apparent difference between civil and common law was the existence of common law in its relation to civil law. Common law was based on religious decisions from the Christian Church (Reichel, 2008). Islamic law has its foundation in a divine source but also incorporates the use of reasoning as well as â€Å"reasoning by analogy† (Reichel, 2008). Religious laws would be considered are religious law these are laws with that hold ethical, and moral standing. A great example is Hindu, Islamic, and etc. which rule by the basis on religion and old law. In simple religion and custom are laws. Contemporary law means the present and prevailing law. This states that laws will be referred to laws that are already in place in order to obtain a mutual consensus throughout the court system. The difference between legal systems and legal traditions is that legal systems are comprised of â€Å"legal institutions, procedures and rules† (Reichel, 2008). Legal traditions deal with the culture and historical attitudes of a society regarding law and how it should be applied (Reichel, 2008). â€Å"Common law had its basis formed in Western Europe whereas civil law had its foundation in Roman times† (Reichel, 2008). An apparent difference that I read between civil and common law was the existence of canon law in its relation to civil law. â€Å"Common law was based on religious decisions from the Christian Church† (Reichel, 2008). Islamic law has its foundation in a divine source but also incorporates the use of reasoning as well as â€Å"reasoning by analogy† (Reichel, 2008). In lament terminology common laws help to develop a better democratic form of governments; that helps prevent any acts of individual’s violation of his or her rights. Therefore, traditional laws help to develop a stronger republic to help protect an individual’s rights and liberties throughout modern world. Religious laws help to determine the action that came from the churches and how their ideological approach does help to improve society. Interpol in short stands for International Criminal Policing Organization. Its sole purpose is to oversee internationally crime trends and crack down international wrong doing. Interpol plays a major roll on the international scene in regards to policing because it’s the world’s largest international police organization. It encompasses approximately 188 countries globally and was created in 1923. â€Å"Interpol aims to facilitate international police co-operation even where diplomatic relations do not exist between particular countries. Action is taken within the limits of existing laws in different countries and in the spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Interpol’s constitution prohibits any intervention or activities of a political, military, religious or racial character† (inter. int). Europol in short stands for â€Å"European Law Enforcement Agency which aims at improving the effectiveness and co–operation of the competent authorities in the Member States in preventing and combating terrorism, unlawful drug trafficking and other serious forms of organized crime† (euro. ur). Europol is the law enforcement agency of the European Union. Our aim is to help achieve a safer Europe by supporting the law enforcement agencies of European Union member states in their fight against international serious crime and terrorism. More than 620 staff at Europol headquarters in The Hague, the Netherlands work closely with law enforcement agencies in the 27 European Union member states and in other non-EU partner states such as Australia, Canada, the USA and Norway† (euro. eur). These two different but very similar methods of trying to police in an effort to prevent and stop crime I feel is very beneficial globally. These two organizations contribute very greatly with regards to international policing. One focuses on European countries while the other focuses on international countries. Sharing vital statistics, crime trends, and data is the Achilles heel for both organizations. They both rely on information sharing with local agencies to produce productive results. For the prevention of international crimes both play major and important rolls with information and data sharing. This is a great system in place because now there isn’t really any criminal that can abscond from justice. Interpol /Europol concentrate on three broad categories of international criminal activity. â€Å"Both contributes to providing information terrorism and crimes against people and property, including crimes against children, trafficking in human beings, illegal immigration, automobile theft, and art theft; economic, financial, and computer crimes, including banking fraud, money laundering, corruption, and counterfeiting; and illegal drugs and criminal organizations, including organized crime† (inter. nt). Interpol’s everyday operations are managed by a General Secretariat under the direction of a secretary general, who is appointed for a five-year term by the General Assembly. Interpol was reorganized in 2001 following the September 11 attacks on the United States. The new post of executive director for police services was created to oversee several director ates, including those for regional and national police services, specialized crimes, and operational police support. In conclusion, the international criminal system does have its ups and downs. Based on the readings and discussions up to this point, it becomes very apparent that the futures of international criminal activities are uncertain. â€Å"There’s no question that terrorism, the growth of multicultural populations, massive migration, upheavals in age-composition demographics, technological developments, and globalization over the next three or more decades will affect the world’s criminal justice systems† (ojp. gov). The research predicts that global trends will play a significant role in how criminal justice is delivered throughout the world. This can be because of the dramatic growth in the number of foreign born Americans and suggests that increasing diversity in populations will have a significant impact not only in the United States but worldwide. Such growth has the potential for disharmony; furthermore, in South Africa, for example, the court system now recognizes eleven official languages. â€Å"As a result, lawyers may speak one language, the judge another, and the defendant, a third. Often, the only two people in the courtroom speaking the same language are the victim and defendant with the judge, prosecutor, and defense lawyer relying on interpreters† (ojp. gov). The lack of similarities extends beyond language to social norms and expectations can prove a huge problem for the future of international criminal justice. Ultimately, the priority over the next couple of decades should be to develop policies and technologies that will help policymakers, decision makers, and citizens establish a criminal justice system that is fair, equitable, and respectful.Reference http://www.ftc.gov/opa/2010/06/twitter.shtm http://www.interpol.int/public/icpo/default.asp http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/journals/255/2040.html

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Human Resource Professional Essay

Activity 1 The Human Resource Professional (HRP) Map displays a clear idea about the required HR skills, knowledge and behaviour to lead the organization to successes. The HRP Map covering of 10 professional areas, 8 behaviours and 4 bands. Sarah Miles (2009), CIPD organizational development director, said: â€Å"This is a complete rethink of professional standards, not just a simple face-lift, and that’s not something you can turn around in a short time. † Human resource professional areas describes what HRs need to know (knowledge) and what need to do (Activities) at four bands of professional capability in each HR professional area. The core professional areas of the HRP Map are Strategy, Insights and Solutions and Leading and Managing the Human Resource function. These are necessary for HRs in their main roles either in organization or in developing themselves. Remain eight professional areas as follows: employee engagement, employee relations, learning and talent development, organization design, organization development, performance and reward, resourcing talent planning and service delivery information. The Strategy, Insights and Solutions by using deep accurate thoughtful of the business activities, plans and strategy and fundamental encouragement of and difficulties to perform sustainability with the need of customers and unique insights to grow the performance of the business through establishing and delivering of human resources solutions and strategy. The Leading and Managing the Human Resource function by guiding and organizing customized human resources function depend on the need of the business requirements. Guarantees that the function has the exact capability, capacity and organization plan in which human resources employees are engaged, work team base and have deep understanding of organization with the drivers valued results. An HR professional needs to carry out the activities through some behaviour. Each behaviour is explained at the four bands of professional capability and lists a number of contra indicators which show negative behaviour. They are 8 which are collaborative, courage to challenge, curious, decisive thinker, driven to deliver, personally credible, role model and skilled influencer. My own selected professional area is the need to improve organization Development for Native Consultancy, Information Technology Company. The Activates, knowledge and behaviour at Band 1 which are most essential to my own HR role are in three points: * Knows employment law and discrimination law, in local and international rule and what the organization needs to do to prevent and monitor the risks. That can be done through collects, assembles and accurately analyses measures, data and feedback by using Labour law book, experts in local and international rules, and register in Labour law course. Respond to change in different ways for different cultures. Through promotes the organizational values and behaviours and recognises their interdependencies with organisational processes, structures, and ways of working. Read relevant researches, meetings with different culturally customers. Satisfy the customers with well communication skills. * Understands basic Organizational Development analytical tools and how to use it correctly. Co-ordinates and rolls out internal communication messages. By reading Articles, researches and case study about Organizational Development and its tools. Easy to apply the OD tools and uses one of it in the organization. The leading behaviours that are essential for this professional area to be done are driven to deliver – expresses willpower, creativity and reason to deliver the best results for the organisation, collaborative – Works efficiently in both inside and outside of the organisation with a range of people. And curious – Is curious and open-minded; seeks out innovative ways to add value to the organisation. Activity 2 To understand the needs of the customers and level of satisfaction, the HR have to continually monitor the needs and how it has been meeting those needs and recognaize any areas that has gaps. This way of analysis will find out the real view of the customers’ needs and will guide the HR professional to balance several perspective and determining which get priority. â€Å"For instance, managers may value high levels of production and long work hours whereas employees may value more time off and a focus on work/life needs. Effective HR customer service will work with both groups to find the right balance† Leigh Richards (2012), eHow Contributor. The customers verify in two types, internal and external. Here we will consider the internal customers for its direct effects on the company and its ongoing processes as employees, managers and technicians. Their needs are differ as training, reports, CVs, tools and hardware and sometime conflict with others. In the divergent of the customers need; the HR professional have to take accurate and impartial clear decision on that. The HR choice will depend on the most important and effective on the organization in a timely manner as the training in the development of new strategy or plan before other needs. To communicate effectively in the organization between customers; e-mails, chats (WhatsApp/BlackBerry/Skype) and direct phone calls are most useful. E-mails are used as formal communication tool between different customers and can be archived for future need but it can be a reason to delay the response either by the user or by telecommunications’ problems. Otherwise the chats and calls can retrieve with direct reply and helpful for urgent issues but as usual cannot be used later for its instantly unsaved answers. An effective work relationship with employees leads to a positive environment. The colleagues, supervisors and management will respect the decisions and contributions results from a collaborative team. â€Å"Maintaining an effective relationship with co-workers takes effort, such as regular communication† Cherrine Banks (2009), the eHow Contributor. Key to any successful HR-line manager relationship is communication. Although the structure of HR is important, success is more about the relationships you build with line managers. Any particular structure that is working now, is reviewed to ensure the HR framework continues to support them,† La Penna (2007). Complaints are found in every organization and business. The most common solutions are Listening, Solving and being polite. Firstly listening to what the customer has to say and ask for as many details as possible. Classify the problem. Then offer a solution before other requests one within a clear policy to know how far you are willing to go for solving the complaints. Be thankful and polite while listening and solving the problem. Be careful on the tone used and body language to solve the problem effectively. Difficult employees display behaviors that can be uncomfortable and backfired to the goals of the organization. The behaviors of a difficult employee can range from stable conversation to rejection to complete the job tasks and its responsibilities. Other difficult behaviors include neglect of colleagues and waste of company belongings. It is important for managers to identify, walk in and stop the actions of difficult employees before more harm is done. How difficult a person is for you to deal with depends on your self-esteem, your self-confidence and your professional courage. † Susan M. Heathfield (2011), Human Resources expert and covered Human Resources for About. com since 2000. HR professional has to explore and brainstorm some solutions with a trusted experienced friend or colleague. Approach the person whom having the problem with private and open a discussion with agreement toward positive actions. The Following up is essential with this person. If the difficult customer didn’t changed positively, the transferring process to new department or job within the organization will be helpful. Time is main effective factor for providing services. Commitments with the deadlines and within the organization roles will effects it toward success. Some services are depending on each other in prioritized and sequence way; so it have be done carefully with respect to the start day and the duration without any dely. Once time is left, the process of finalizing the work have to be faster and will affect other tasks and maybe will consume more recourses, time and money. Dearing the current situation of market, the organizations cannot afford everything needed for the customers. The budget has shortage and the business is returning less profit than before. From that point, the HR practitioner can handle the customized budget in smart way. As purchasing printer one for each department and can be non-colour printing for all except those in need for colour as advertisement department. As well the printing can be converted to be digitally e-mailed or uploaded to the organizations website. Brad Power (2011) writes about this in â€Å"Why Doesn’t HR Lead Change? He defers to Dave Ulrich, a University of Michigan professor recognized by HR Magazine as the most influential person in HR, who said there are three human resources processes that are critical to embedding a culture of continuous improvement: talent flow, rewards and training and development. Firstly, for the talent flow, HR experts can develop method for hiring who are familiar with the attitudes and behaviors of their company. Managers are hired for expertise, not attitude and behavior. The attitude and behavior that support the direction of the company are necessary to continues improvement. The Rewards is a â€Å"Continuous improvement demands that people not only carry out their jobs, but improve their work too,† writes Power. Training and Development is important at the organization. If it does not afford the knowledge and skills customers need to improve their work, its mean that continuous improvement isn’t important. According to the power for leading change, HR professional must use its influence to help leaders focus on customers, long-term business outcomes, and building competences in their people; be a partner; and get operational experience.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Definition and Exampes in English Grammar

Definition and Exampes in English Grammar A diminutive is a word form or suffix that indicates smallness. Also called  hypocoristic. In his Dictionary of English Grammar (2000), R.L. Trask points out that the English language usually forms diminutives by suffixing -y or -ie, often to a reduced form of the source word, as in hanky for a handkerchief, doggie for dog and Tommie for Thomas. But we also use -ette, as in statuette and kitchenette. Other examples of diminutives include  booklet, a small book; circlet, a small circle; duckling, a young duck; hillock  a small hill; novelette, a short novel; wavelet, a ripple or small wave; rivulet, a small brook or stream; gosling, a young goose; coronet, a small crown; eyelet, a small hole; and  droplet, a tiny drop. Etymology From the Latin deminut, to lessen Example My parents named me William, but my friends call me Billy or just Bill. Except for one aunt who calls me Willy. Diminutive Derivation [I]n English, productive diminutive derivation hardly exists at all, despite the existence of isolated baby forms such as handies, doggie or birdie (one can say girlie but not *mannie, auntie but not *unclie, horsie but not *goatie, and so on. The Trick of Shrinking A charming trick almost every language has is the shrinking of someone or something you like by the use of diminutives. The diminutive of Charles is Charlie. The diminutive of William is Billy. The diminutive of star is starlet. The diminutive of pig is piglet. The Olympics of diminutives is won hands-down by the Italians, who have literally dozens of different forms of the diminutive, each conveying its own special nuance of feeling for the noun undergoing the shrinking. A Borrowed Italian Diminutive The food is so good because the ingredients are excellent, like the bread that is made especially for ino at Blue Ribbon Bakery down the block. But ino, a word ending that is an all-purpose Italian diminutive, also offers a European-style warmth. Contrasting Attitudes Toward Diminutives Traditionally, the term diminutive has been used to refer to words which denote smallness and possibly also expressing an attitude. The expressed attitude can be either positive or negative, i.e. either affectionate or derogatory, depending on the specific interplay of linguistic and situational factors in a given context. Diminutives are titles of endearment. Dr. Johnson calling Goldsmith Goldy did equal honor to both. Fanny is a patronizing diminutive. It makes the author [Frances Burney] sound the harmless, childish, priggish girl-woman that many critics want her to beas if the heroine of Mansfield Park has set up as a novelist. Let her have an adult full name. Pronunciation di-MIN-you-tif Sources David Klass,  You Dont Know Me. Square Fish, 2001 Anna Wierzbicka,  Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: The Semantics of Human Interaction. Walter de Gruyter, 1991 (Barry Farber,  How to Learn Any Language. Citadel, 1991 Eric Asimov, An Italian Sandwich Shop That Takes the Diminutive.  The New York Times, February 10, 1999 Margaret Anne Doody,  Frances Burney: The Life in the Works. Rutgers University Press, 1988

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Cleave, Cleaver, and Clove

Cleave, Cleaver, and Clove Cleave, Cleaver, and Clove Cleave, Cleaver, and Clove By Maeve Maddox Sophia Bailey asks about the word cleave: Can you please explain cleave. On one hand it means to separate (cleaver butcher) and on the other it means to cling to (cleave to bosom). Huh? Old English had two verbs that have come to be spelled the same way in modern English: clifian: to adhere, to stick cleofan: to split, to separate Note: In these OE words, the letter f stands for the v sound. From clifian we get the cleave that means adhere or stick (in the glutinous sense). Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh. (Genesis 2:24, King James version) She cleaved to him, and he could feel his blood changing like quicksilver (D.H. Lawrence, Women in Love (1920) Already married to a man who had ended up in prison, she cleaved to the outlaw†¦ (blog about Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow, with a 1995-2005 copyright notice.) †¦she cleaved to her Baptist views until her death. (a book review dated 1999) From cleofan we get the cleave that means cut in two. Order a side of beefthat’s half a cow, roughly 300 poundsand get it cut and cleaved any way you like. (ad for a meat company) A gyrocopter pilot drove towards a hunt supporter who was trying to stop him from taking off, cleaving his head from top to bottom, ..(grim story in the Telegraph, 19 October 2010) Cleofian was a strong verb in OE so we also have the past form clove: [they] conducted him into a vast room, clove a passage for him through the assembled nobility of England, [The knight] cut through all his head armour and his skin and his flesh and clove him in twain. he clove the rock, and the waters gushed out. .. the king seized hold of a huge sledge-hammer, and swinging it round his head, struck it with such force upon the anvil that he clove the massive block of iron in twain†¦, From cleofian we also get the words cleft, cloven and cleavage. Cleft can be used as a noun, as in a cleft in the rock, or as a an adjective meaning split or bifurcated. A cleft palate is a malformation involving a split or gap in the palate. The expression, to find oneself in a cleft stick, means to be in a dilemma, to be unable to go forward or return to ones initial position. The hoof of a pig or a goat can be described either as a cleft hoof or a cloven hoof. The latter has diabolical connotations because the Devil is often depicted in art as having the feet of a goat. The word cleavage is much used by geologists, biologists, and writers of celebrity gossip. cleavage: The action of cleaving or splitting crystals and certain rocks along their lines of natural fissure; the state of being so cleft. cleavage: Cell-division, segmentation. cleavage: The cleft between a womans breasts as revealed by a low-cut dà ©colletage. (colloquial) A cleaver, of course, is a butchers cutting tool. It can be of any shape, but the shape most often associated with it is that of a small hatchet. The noun clove, meaning the pointy bit that breaks off a bulb of garlic, is related to OE cleofian, to split. The noun clove meaning the spice comes from a word meaning nail, Anglo-French clowes, French clou, Latin clavus. Cloves are the dried flowerbuds of an evergreen tree. They resemble nails. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Apply to, Apply for, and Apply with20 Words Meaning "Being or Existing in the Past"Comma After Introductory Phrases

Saturday, November 2, 2019

UK Commercial law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

UK Commercial law - Essay Example This essay will primarily cover the niceties of agency law governing the relationship between Iffy and Victor. It will also touch upon the sales law, both international and domestic, relating to the relationship between Iffy and the Chinese automotive seller and also with the UK car dealers. Because of the handicap of Iffy, having neither experience of dealing with the Chinese automotive industry nor any contacts therein, it will be necessary for them to hire the services of Victor by appointing him as their agent to deal with the Chinese in their stead for the delivery of a certain number of utility vehicles, spare parts and accessories. Indeed, this is so because a limited company can only act through its human agents,1 whether through its own directors, employees or through independent agents. I would prepare for Iffy the agency2 agreement, through which Victor will deal with the Chinese automotive executives, empowering him to negotiate and constitute a contract or contracts between Iffy and chosen Chinese auto manufacturing or dealer company or companies, as agent3 in the name of Iffy, together with the necessary instructions and document forms needed for the transactions. In the present case, I will be preparing the necessary documents to be signed by the proper company officers with the agent's conformity. The provisions of the agency agreement shall task Victor with negotiating and executing the necessary contracts for the importation of the chosen automobiles and effecting the proper secure means of delivery of the same vehicles to UK for distribution to sellers. In the present case, the agency agreement would oblige Victor to expressly name his principal, considering that there are no facts in the case that would tend to obstruct the consummation of the contract or contracts should the Chinese know of Iffy's identity. The agreement would also contain provisions on the required methods of shipping the vehicles and the means of payment. It is very crucial considering that the business transaction will be made outside of UK that the terms and conditions of the agency be expressly laid out in black and white. It is necessary for Iffy as principal to lay down the terms and conditions of the employment or to employ the agent in a specific position in the company in order for the tasks to be deducible from the very position itself. I would advise Iffy that the agency agreement between them and Victor binds both of them to the following consequences, in terms of rights and duties expressly imposed by law, jurisprudence and regulations: Iffy must remember that Victor has the following rights against them, which rights Victor can enforce in the proper judicial forum. 1. Right to remuneration4 - Victor will be entitled to the consideration based on the contract or in quantum meruit according to the extent of his performance of its terms. Furthermore, Victor as agent will be entitled to retainer or commission or royalty from Iffy for every vehicle imported even after the termination of the agency pursuant to common law rules and the Reg. 8, 1993 Commercial Agents (Council Directive).5 2. Right to indemnity - He will also be entitled to indemnity or restitution and refund