Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Women s Rights And Feminist Movements - 995 Words

Although often iconized as a time of industrial and political revolution the 20th Century provided an equally important platform for social revolution. During this era countless social movements emerged, notably so the women’s rights and feminist movements. Tremendous gains were made for women throughout the century’s span, from suffrage, to equal pay, and the availability of contraceptives. One of the most complex feminist movements of the 20th century followed the period’s most tumultuous event: World War II. While under occupation by the United States the Japanese feminist movement flourished and the lives of Japanese women changed dramatically. The feminism of this period, from the end of the war to the end of occupation, has been studied by numerous historians and is mentioned in most literature concerning occupation. The leading scholars of occupation feminism have approached and presented the topic in three distinctly different ways: several focus on cultu ral changes, others emphasize the movement’s deep historical roots, and some criticize the period as flawed feminism. The loss of World War II was a catalyst for cultural change within Japan. Occupation and the subsequent influx of American ideals and culture influenced the changes that occurred in Japanese women’s lives. John Dower, a retired MIT professor of Japanese history, reflects on these cultural changes in his work â€Å"Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II†. Throughout his book in chapters suchShow MoreRelatedFeminist Psychology Can Credit The Majority Of Its Influences Of The Women s Rights Movement1295 Words   |  6 PagesFeminist psychology can credit the majority of its influences of the women’s rights movement of the 60’s. Since this movement was classified as grassroots, no one has been credited as an originator or founder of this particular theory. Feminists attempted to collect elements of multiple successful ps ychological theories but attempted to eliminate any sexist aspects of those theories. The primary focus is on guiding women in confidence, communication, self-worth, and interactions. Feminist therapyRead MoreHow Did The Feminist Movement Address The Issues Surrounding Women s Rights?859 Words   |  4 PagesHow did the feminist movement address the issues surrounding women’s rights in terms of their bodies? Women were starting to make progression in equality in terms of jobs and pay but still lacked to reform on issues that surrounded women and control they lacked in society over their bodies. One of the first things protested was the Miss America contest. The selection of Miss America still painted women to be as men and society thought they should be. Women said Miss America was oppressive and asRead MoreFeminism And Its Impact On Women s Rights Movement Essay1586 Words   |  7 Pagesmyself as a feminist made me uncomfortable since it evoked the image of a troop of an angry man-hating, unattractive women. When signing up for classes for senior year, I wanted to pick classes of interest to me, but sadly those classes were filled up, leaving me with no choice to enroll in a Gender Studies class. Unexpectedly, I never met with a mass of enraged women spewing hate towards males; rather it was calm and filled with intelligent conversations.Media often broadcasts radical feminists as theR ead MoreThe Second Wave Of Feminism799 Words   |  4 Pagesfeminism (in the 1960’s and 1970’s) successful in achieving equality for women?† The essay is introduced by describing why the second wave of feminism developed and the aims of this second wave of feminist. The essay is broken into two parts. The first part of the essay discusses the impact of women s rights activist on legislation. It is argued that the second wave feminist were unsuccessful in gaining equality in terms of obtaining equal wages and opportunities for women in the workplace. TheyRead MoreThe Feminist Movement1137 Words   |  5 Pagesalways been a common belief that women exist inferior to men. The Bible demonstrates that God made the first woman Eve from the rib of Adam and God â€Å"[does] not permit a woman to teach or to exercise authority over a man; rather, she is to remain quiet† (1 Timothy 2:11-15). However, understanding their important role in the family and society an d feeling tired of being undertreated by men, women finally stood up for themselves. In the 19th century, the Feminist Movement emerged and completely changedRead MoreFazal Ihsan Pattathil. Mrs. Ramsey. English I. 05 May 2017.1231 Words   |  5 PagesPattathil Mrs. Ramsey English I 05 May 2017 Feminist Movement Pros/Cons In the 1960’s women in America were expected to marry in their early 20’s and start a family. Back then not many women worked, most stayed at home and took care of the children. Now, in the year 2017, women have equal rights to men and are now a very important part of the workforce. Although the Feminist movement is giving women equal treatment to men there are also feminists who believe that women should be indistinguishable to men,Read MoreFirst Wave Feminism By Betty Friedan1171 Words   |  5 PagesBackground Knowledge: Second-wave feminism refers to the period of feminist activity that focused on social and legal issues of gender equality such as sexuality, family, the workplace, reproductive rights and equal opportunity in education and the workplace. Source 1: The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan In 1963, Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique was published. Friedan discussed the problem that â€Å"lay buried, unspoken† in the minds of the suburban housewife, saying that they were too sociallyRead MoreBeauvoir s Feminist Beliefs : Simone De Beauvoir924 Words   |  4 PagesBeauvoir’s Feminist Beliefs (An educational analysis of Simone de Beauvoir s feminist beliefs) Simone de Beauvoir is to this day one of the key central figures in the women’s rights movement. She inspired people all over the world. Although she may not be the extreme feminist that people believe her to be. Beauvoir said many times that she naturally didn’t believe that women were inferior to men, but she also didn’t believe that they were naturally equal either. Beauvoir wrote the book The SecondRead MoreDoes Feminism Create Equality?1037 Words   |  5 Pageshas the capability to limit an individual’s social and political right. Even if there is inequality between men and women, feminism has never been the main reason to give women their civil rights. Feminism started among European activists in the 19th century, when women were not treated equally and were not elected to high positions of power. Indeed, it sought to eliminate sexism in all forms. While feminism has made advances for women to compete with men and narrow gender differences, fem inism isRead MoreAge, Race, Class And Sex : Women Redefining Difference By Audre Lorde1327 Words   |  6 PagesYunqin Chi WGS210 Essay 1 In the article â€Å" Age, Race, Class and Sex: Women Redefining Difference† by Audre Lorde , she talks about the differences between people in our society, the differences between black and white women, the different isms of society, and what we can do to change. The difference in age, race, class and sex is incorrectly classified as good or bad, right or wrong. These categories are then named and accepted for the position of god and the people, the people and the wives, the

Monday, December 16, 2019

Social regulation in the workplace Free Essays

string(72) " promotion of adult females in the workplace \( Mattis et al, 2002 \) \." An Examination of the Concepts and Theories Associated with an Analysis of Social Regulation in the Workplace And the Groups and Representative Institutions Associated With These Procedures Introduction †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. We will write a custom essay sample on Social regulation in the workplace or any similar topic only for you Order Now .†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 2 Conclusion †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 8 Bibliography.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦ . 9 Introduction Globalization as a phenomenon that has and is utilized to depict the vicissitudes of our universe today, has been attributed as a cause, status, underpinning, end and procedure that has and is polishing how and what we are as persons, companies, organisations, states and parts. Some have described globalisation as making an addition in societal interactions and connexions over infinite ( Chase/Dunn et al, 2000, pp. 77-95 ) . The preceding does apparently hold cogency given the broad spread additions in international communications that has helped to further thoughts with images of films from foreign venues, low cost telecommunications for personal calls and Internet confab suites, instant messaging every bit good as web sites and electronic mail allowing enlargement of our positions. This new environment has besides caused some states to take a closer expression at their societal constructions with regard to past events and current tendencies. One such country is the issue of feminin e equality. The Women’s Movement of the sixtiess has ne’er died, it has merely taken on a more broad spread veneer as adult females, cognizant of the varied societal inequalities, have rolled up their arms and taken the affair up on a by and big personal 1 on one footing. Evidence in support of this can be found in the addition in educational committedness. In 2005 ( UCAS, 2005 ) females represented 239,331 of all appliers for grades in establishments of higher acquisition in the United Kingdom, as compared with 214,502 for males. The entire figure of females accepted represented 170,003, males – 153,215, with the per centum rate for the predating representing 73.5 % and 71.4 % severally ( UCAS, 2005 ) . However, there is still a disproportionate relationship found in wage graduated tables, the gender wage spread for corporate director places is 27.8 % , whereby females earn 73.2 % of what their male opposite numbers do for the same degree of work ( Purcell, 2002, p. 6 ) . In an economic and matter-of-fact sense, globalisation has tended to increase the power of capital in its relationship to labour as directors cite retrenchment, increased productiveness and quality along with wage as a coefficient of merchandise and or service cost. Governmen tal response to threats associating to its corporations, intending companies housed within its boundary lines, is to cut down societal protections therefore increasing the flexibleness of the labour force ( Gummett, 1996 ) . Governmental policies on corporate societal duty are a big construct in that it encompasses the undermentioned statement ( Corporate Social Responsibility, 2004 ) â€Å"The Government sees CSR as the concern part to our sustainable development goals† . The statement goes on to add that it is seen by authorities as â€Å"†¦ how concern takes history of its economic, societal †¦ impacts in the manner it operates †¦Ã¢â‚¬  ( Corporate Social Responsibility, 2004 ) . It goes on to add that it sees â€Å"†¦ CSR as the voluntary actions that concern can take, over and above conformity with minimal legal demands to turn to †¦ its ain competitory involvements and †¦ . involvements of wider society† ( Corporate Social Responsi bility, 2004 ) . This scrutiny shall take a expression at the constructs every bit good as theories that are associated with societal ordinance in the workplace, along with the persons, groups and representative establishments that as associated with these procedures. The criterions for gender balance in working environments is put away by the authorities are defined by the transition of ordinances get downing with the seventiess. The execution of legislative policy is an historical cheque on the societal procedures and demands for alteration that preceded their debut therefore supplying hints as to the underlying societal alterations that represented issues prior to enactment. The Equal Pay Act of 1970 ( International Labour Organization, 2005 ) provided that work forces and adult females have the same equal terms with respect to the conditions and footings of employment stand foring occupations comprised of the same degree or similar degrees of work. An amendment to this Act was implemented in 1983 ( HMS, 2005 ) to bespeak that all persons executing the same work must have the same rate of wage, bespeaking frontward advancement in societal duty that was further strengthened by the Sex Discrimination Act of 1975 ( Stationary Office, 2005 ) which specified that favoritism against adult females has occurred when they are treated less than favourably in comparing with work forces and that where conditions and or demands are implemented or imposed whereby it consequences in places skewed unevenly in favour of males, every bit good as demands and or conditions whereby adult females would non be in a place to follow with. It legislated that adult females and work forces are equal and included statute law to extinguish favoritism utilizing gestation and or childbearing. The authorities through legislative amendments has strengthened assorted facets of the preceding over the old ages as represented by the followers: A. Equal Wage Amendments ( HMS, 2005 ) Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1992 Employment Rights Act 1996 Employment Rights Act 1998 B. Sex Discrimination Act 1975 Amendments ( HMS, 2005 ) The Sex Discrimination Regulations 1999 Legislation nevertheless can non do companies to speed up or increase their committednesss and or ethical patterns in the country of societal duty as wonts and the position quo tend to be engrained in corporate civilization and decelerate to alter. Rubery ( 2003 ) points out that as a consequence of the deficiency of mechanisms that are effectual in turn toing employer behaviour, the chance for extra additions in the country of societal duty will stay slow. His position has besides been adopted by Roivaset et Al ( 2004 ) . It has been argued that the concern issues with regard to adult females in the workplace is a accepted issue and that gender equality represents an of import societal duty, the consensus is that it is good policy to put to the promotion of adult females in the workplace ( Mattis et al, 2002 ) . You read "Social regulation in the workplace" in category "Essay examples" It has besides been put forth that speed uping equal chances with respect to adult females in the workplace can be advanced through combinations of legal attacks in the country of conformity every bit good as the concern instances and through societal ordinance ( Dickens, 1999 ) . Corporate Social duty entails three facets that are associated with the ground for the pattern and why it exists in the first topographic point: Corporate Social Responsibility entails conformity with statute law. This has been pointed out by Carol ( 1999 ) in his â€Å"Corporate societal duty – development of a definitional construct† paper. Corporate Social Responsibility has to boot emerged in footings of a concern instance that is connected to put on the line inauspicious investing, employee satisfaction, additions in corporate repute and increasing the corporation’s capacity for invention as theorized by Siegal et Al ( 2002 ) And in conclusion, Corporate Social Responsibility has become an facet of the societal cloth through soft statute law by assorted authoritiess, every bit good as through alliances stand foring authoritiess and evidenced by the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Companies, and non authorities organisations ( Moon, 2004 ) And while the feminine issue has taken a back place in the procedure, corporations utilize their engagement in Corporate Social duty to advance their standing in the concern and public spheres, with companies in assorted alliances every bit good as associations and organisations such as Business in the Community, the Global Reporting Initiative and the United Nations Global Compact. Corporate Social duty is an activity that is engaged in the societal facets in their context of concern success that are external societal and internal extensions of the company. It is involved in procedures implying the allotment, coverage and measuring of societal public presentation in concurrence with political facets such as the shaping of duties every bit good as rights in the context of stakeholder engagements. Monbiot ( 2000 ) every bit good as Hertz ( 2001 ) see Corporate Social Responsibility as important in footings of society in the wide context every bit good as in the context of the societal facet of single concerns and chiefly in transnational corporations whose public and international actions are scrutinized. It besides is understood in footings of the addition in which authorities is and has encouraged battle to do concern to see its importance as a turning context of the overall societal cloth. Despite the comparatively slow advancement in female promotion connected through Corporate Social Responsibility agendas it is an active and bing focal point which adult females have at their disposal to help in farther progresss, despite the limited tools and resources in that respect. Its arrangement in the countries of human capital direction, corporate societal duty guidelines every bit good as socially responsible investing are employee and diverseness issues that represent support mechanisms to farther hereafter progresss. The Council of Europe ( 2006 ) states that societal coherence represents the â€Å"†¦ capacity of a society to guarantee the public assistance of all its members, minimising disparities†¦Ã¢â‚¬  and has added that gender quality is an country that means equal visibleness every bit good as authorization and the engagement of the sexes ( both ) in all facets of public every bit good as private life. The Council of Europe ( 2006 ) has indicated that t he betterment and development of policy procedures should be evaluated and reorganized to integrate the position of gender equality in all degrees and at all phases of public and concern activities. The Council indicates that gender equality needs to be positioned at the nucleus of societal rating and analysis from the beginning and the gender issues need to be farther identified and reviewed in the context of policies every bit good as the publicity of gender equality as a mainstream of societal duty. Walby ( 2004 ) adds that it goes beyond the thought of merely adding adult females in footings of employment Numberss it is a inquiry of policies and the affects. Rees ( 2004 ) sees the procedure of corporate societal duty as necessitating to deviate its attending in footings of persons to the systems and constructions which gave rise to the state of affairs whereby it arose in the first topographic point. He continues that there are three distinguishable attacks to the issue, which are 1. legal, 2. best pattern, and 3. gender mainstreaming Rees ( 2004 ) . Advancing adult females in the context of corporate societal duty represents the use of the political every bit good as societal procedure and that garnering information from adult females as the foundation to measure ways in which to trip the procedure represents a cardinal measure in doing it work. The procedure of supplying and giving gender equality more dentitions is non feminism but world in seting the position of enabling so ciety to deduce the most benefit from all of its participants and therefore progress itself beyond its present boundaries and restrictions with new and fresh inputs. The procedure besides includes outside groups and organisations that are engaged in the procedure whose influence at nowadays is minimum, yet active. The figure of groups and organisations stand foring societal duty in the context of females is modest. The undermentioned represents a partial list: The Association of Sustainability Practitioners located at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.new-academy.ac.uk/ is engaged in trade and gender issues. Business for Social duty provides a wealth of information every bit good as rank for persons interested in advancing all facets of this subject, including women’s issues at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bsr.org/ CSR Europe is a non-profit organisation advancing corporate societal duty and states its mission is to assist companies attain profitableness, every bit good as to prolong growing and human advancement. Its web site is at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.csreurope.org/aboutus/ Centre for Corporate Accountability, which is located at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.corporateaccountability.org/about.htm is devoted to societal answerability and duty issues and offers legal aid every bit good as academic and militants. The activities in the country of gender equality have developed, yet the motion is still slightly stuck in its ain inability to specify itself in more direct footings. Many companies have developed the concern instance attack and therefore the betterment of their patterns with regard to promotion of adult females in the workplace. The sphere of equal chance as put Forth in 1970 is taking a long clip to go more that an legislative Act, it is apparently taking the remotion of one coevals and portion of another to prosecute the procedure as a normal, instead than legislative fact. Organizations such as Opportunity Now in the United Kingdom, every bit good as Catalyst in the United States have demonstrated that to prosecute the effectual promotion of adult females in the workplace, organisations need leading that is effectual every bit good as committed. The concern every bit good as societal instance for gender equality represents a concern chance that needs more active battle in HR pat terns every bit good as keeping, preparation, wage, work-life balance and publicity to supply it with life. At present, there is some grounds that there are programmes whereby the sweetening of gender equality can be advanced through the arrangement of monitoring and measuring that is conducted on a regular footing with the aid of authorities to do the procedure to go actively occupied instead than the inactive phase that authorities takes soon. The committedness on the portion of authorities represents a committedness on behalf of the people, and that is the musculus this procedure needs to acquire it out of the clay and back on the route. The slow growing policy has been developing velocity since the 1970s and still has non truly moved to any appreciable grade. The statute law has been in topographic point, now it needs to be activated as a portion of societal duty to supply impulse. Decision With all the preceding, so the inquiry is what has happened to the focal point and context of Corporate Social duty? Focus, is the primary reply. World events such as terrorist act, the war in Iraq, concern fight issues, offense, pension financess, and wellness attention issues have taken phase with societal duty and eroded the societal focal point. It no longer commands the same tableland in face of economic, wellness, public assistance and safety issues and therefore corporate focal point and social focal point has been diverted. The predating illustrations and countries represent the get downing stage of a larger docket that has merely entered is embryologic phase, therefore farther growing is expected. But, as with all things it will necessitate a consistent diet of growing and attending, maintaining it watered and fed until it is strong plenty to hold legs of its ain. The growing in the procedure will come from rules that are based in justness, equity and an apprehension of equity to broaden the context to societal inclusion. As stated by Rees ( 2004 ) the focal point is pull offing diverseness which needs to go one of enlightenment. The displacement is from the feminine position to acknowledging that the systems and constructions that have developed over decennaries has given rise to a system and processes whereby the state of affairs developed to the point that it became the normal behavior of life. Changing that facet will necessitate work as positions, and the comfort of things being the manner they are represent wonts that are engrained and hard to readapt. The full context entails traditional thoughts from a cultural and societal position which has conditioned behavior to the point where in many instances most males are non even cognizant it is an issue, and that is precisely the issue. Bibliography Carol, A. ( 1999 ) Corporate societal duty – development of a definitional concept. Vol. 38. , Issue 3. Business and Society Chase-Dunn, C. , Kawano, Y. , Brewer, B. ( 2000 )Pull offing Social Policy.Sage Publications, London, United Kingdom Corporate Social Responsibility ( 2004 )What is CSR? .hypertext transfer protocol: //www.societyandbusiness.gov.uk/whatiscsr.shtml Council of Europe ( 2005 )Social Policies.hypertext transfer protocol: //www.coe.int/T/E/Social_cohesion/Social_policies/ Devils, L. ( 1999 )Beyond the Business Case: A three pronged attack to equality action. Vol. 9, Issue 1. Human Resource Management Journal Gummett, P. ( 1996 )Globalization and Public Policy.Edward Elgar Publications, Cheltenham, United Kingdom Hertz, N. ( 2001 )The Silent Coup d’etat. Heinemann, London, United Kingdom HMS. ( 2005 ) .Equal Pay Act 1970.hypertext transfer protocol: //www.legislation.hmso.gov.uk/acts.htm HMS. ( 2005 ) .Sex Discrimination Act 1975. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.legislation.hmso.gov.uk/acts.htm International Labor Organization ( 2005 ) 1970 Equal Pay Act. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/gems/eeo/law/uk/epa.htm Mattis, M. , Giscombe, K. ( 2002 )Leveling the Playing Field for Women of Colour in Corporate Management: Is the Business instance Enough? ?Vol. 37, Issue 1. Journal of Business Ethical motives Monbiot, G. ( 2000 )Captive State: The Corporate Takeover of Britain.MacMillan, Basingstoke Moon, J. ( 2004 )Government as a Driver of Corporate Social duty: The UK in Comparative Perspective. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nottingham.ac.uk/busijness/CCSR/index.htmml Network Partnership. ( 2005 ) .Equal Pay.hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nirs.demon.co.uk/eqpay.htm Purcell, K. ( 2002 )Qualifications A ; Careers. University of Wales. Rees, T. ( 200 )Contemplations on the uneven development of gender mainstreaming.Leeds University Roivas, S. , Reinicke, K, Thorbergsdottir, B ( 2004 )The European Employment Strategy and national employment policies. In From public assistance to knowfare. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bifrost.is/wellnow/Files/Skra0005517.pdf Rubery, J. ( 2002 )Gender Mainstreaming and Gender Equality in the EU. Vol. 33, Issue 5. Industrial Relations Journal Siegal, D. , McWilliams, A. ( 2002 )Corporate societal duty: a theory of the signifier position. Vol. 26. , Issue 1. Academy of Management Review Stationary Office ( 2005 ) .The Sex Discrimination Act 1975.hypertext transfer protocol: //www.pfc.org.uk/legal/sda.htm Universities and Colleges Admissions Service ( 2005 )Applicants and Acceptance for Degrees.hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ucas.ac.uk/ Walby, S. ( 2004 )Gender mainstreaming: productive tensenesss in theory and pattern.University of Leeds How to cite Social regulation in the workplace, Essay examples

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Eliminating Plastic Bottles in the United States

Question: Write an essay on Eliminating Plastic Bottles in the United States? Answer: Introduction The use of plastic bottles in the United States is increasing from the last century. Plastic bottles have enhanced the pollution in environment through the considerable percentage. There are many companies that are suing the plastic bottles in order to pack the drinking water or other ready to drink items. The increase in the use of plastic bottles is increasing at the alarming rate. This essay looks into the plastic bottles in the U.S. This essay intends to come up with the dangers related to plastic bottles, and support the readers with elimination solutions, so that they could reduce the environmental dangers. Increasing use of Plastic Bottles Plastic water bottles are usually available anywhere that too at the low price and at easy convenience. Currently, plastic bottle are used in the microscope, as the industries that are unnecessary inefficient and wasteful, when the clean water of tap is available in various countries of the world. There are many solutions as well as alternatives, which are proposed such as, ban of bottle water, ban on the production of plastic, which is made through the resources other than the oil; adopting the system of filtration in order to refill the stations . Every proposed solution present the various and different set of positive as well as negative attributes, in order to progress towards the goal for adopting the sustainable distributing water system; it is quite imperative that all the positive attributes of every alternative are actually embraced and built over it . Despite of having the strict type of regulations over the quality of water in America, the demand for plastic bottle has increased constantly. Presently, around 20% of the total population depends on the plastic bottles for their regular hydration. In the year 1990, the plastic bottle use has considerably increased, and this has happened as there are many soft drinks companies has set up and has produced the ready to drink items. All these companies opted for the plastic bottles, due to many certain reasons. Plastic bottles also offered wide range of benefits to the companies. Plastic bottles seemed to have semi-rigid towards rigid that relies over the lightweight and thickness. The plastic bottles provide fair gas as well as barriers of moisture, solvent and alcohol barriers. They also make use of the polyvinyl alcohol, in order to minimize the permeability. The companies also make use of the plastic bottles, as they provide cheap way of manufacturing it. Plastic bottles in USA Plastic bottles are compared with various other types of packaging that offers the chance of recycling. The use of plastic bottles has started becoming crucial issue to the world as well as United States. In U.S, for example, the use of plastic bottles increased by 500%. Currently, around 1 million tons of plastic is used in water bottle, and soft drinks in a year. The rate by which plastic bottle gas used has remarkably gone high in comparison to its recycling. This has happened as the plastic recycling has become messy and inefficient. The plastic bottle recycling is not actually at the similar pace, same as in production. The rate through which these companies are entering into the market has overturned the rate by which they are recycled. Once the people use these bottles, they actually throw them. The use of plastic bottles has posed serious issues of environment in the USA. The issues related with the use of plastic bottles have impacted every person. It also impacts the children, adults, female, men, and youth in the society. Mainly, it impacts the complete citizenry, in every part of USA. This happened due to the use of plastic bottles that pollutes the environment. The issues related to the use of plastic bottles have impacted the environment in direct way, and the people who interact with the environment also get impacted. For example, in the year 2006, 2 million of the liter bottles in the USA. They created around thousands of tons of plastic that increase global warming pollution as well as disturb the air position. Alone in New York, the bottled water from Western Europe calculated that 2800 tons of global warming pollution has gone in the atmosphere. In the city of California, 18 million of the plastic bottle has caused around 2500 tons of the global warming pollution. Issues come across the fact that plastic bottle dont be biodegrade, they actually form the permanent form of landfills. Every year, people in America throw 6 million of bottles. Its noted that from the 26 bison, there are only 15% of the bottles that get recycled. This has resulted into clogging of the landfills that cause through the lack of system of recycling of plastic bottle. The plastic bottles mainly use the various fossil fuels, which usually pollute the environment. People in USA usually purchase the bottle water in comparison to other people in the world. Present bottled water comes to around 29 billion of the plastic bottles in the environment. For the purpose of come up with amount of plastic bottle, manufacturers make use of 17 million around of barrel of crude oil. This cost to the country in context of the fuel, which goes in the bottled water production. The issues related to the use of plastic bottle include the fact that from the six bottles used; one of them goes in the recycling process. The other end of the plastic bottle goes in rivers, oceans land, or lakes. The plastic bottle manufactures needs to have the combination of petroleum and gas. Therefore, the plastic bottle production carets the upsurge the process of fuel as there is high demand. Most of the plastic bags and bottles usually create the important economic as well as environmental burden. They usually consume the increasing energy as well as other natural resources, which degrade the environment in various ways. Along with this, using the fossil fuel and various other resources, plastic items try to create the litter, impact marine life as well as threaten the base of life on the earth. They also produce around 25 million of tons of plastic in US each year. Its noted that in the year 2009, around 30 million tons of plastic was generated in America, and around 2 million ton was actually recovered. In the year 2009, around 2.12 million ton of plastic was recycled in America. But only 7.1% was generated in 2009. In the year 2009, recycling arte of plastic bottle was around 2.5 billion pounds that comes to around 28% of the plastic bottles, which are consumed in the USA. As per the economics, in the year 2009, around $485 million of plastic was wasted in America, which comes from 1000 households living in USA and comes from middle income group. As per the accessibility, there are around 94% of the Americans that has access to the recycling of plastic bottle and around 40% of the total population can recycle their plastic containers such as lids as well as dairy tubs. In around 100 cities through the 2500 community person, the population percentage having the accessibility to recycle the plastic containers along with bottles has increased by the year 2008. According to recycled content, around 8 million of the plastic bottles that are produced in America in 2009 are recycled; the material produced is around 22 million of the large t-shirts. The plastic bottle recycle in 2009, offer the raw material of 7 million shirts, and 44% rise in 2009 of recycled plastic is used in beverage and food. As per the energy, every pound of the recycled plastic that is used in place of virgin material eliminate the use of energy in the production of plastic by 84% along with 71% of greenhouse gas emission. In case of plastic bags and recycling, in the year 2009, there is around 855 million pounds of plastic bottle is recycled in USA that comes to around 31% from 2005. In case of economics, only 9% of the total plastic bottles were recycled in 2009, which implies 3470 tons. United States is the worst offender in case of plastic bottle. The country top in the top trash producer all over the world, that comes to around 5% of the population of earth that generates around 40% of the waste of the earth (DIANE Publishing Company 1991). Its noted that typical family of US consumes around 182 gallons of the soda, 29 gallons of the juice, around 104 gallons of the milk, and around 26 gallons of the bottled water every year. The main question is that how US could become environmentally sound place in concern to plastic bottles. There are many other countries like UK and Japan that are instituted towards recycling programs in order to reduce the plastic bottle waste. Curiously, there are many laws, which actually non-existent in the country like America, and many voluntary efforts are taken that have become unsuccessful. Conclusion In case of the plastic bottles, there might be laws that make deposit and make it mandatory to recycle the plastic bottle. There are many states that have made the laws mandatory. In the United States, they have deposits of plastic bottles, and the rate of recycling has increased by 85% by the year 2008. The possible factors of plastic bottles can also be applied in case of aluminum cans, and deposit could also be imposed. However, its noted that aluminum is consistently worth of money at the scrap dealer; therefore, one could think about the monetary compensation. References Boone and Kurtz. Contemporary Marketing. Cengage Learning, 2011. Carlson. Biology Is Technology. Harvard University Press, 2010. DIANE Publishing Company. Let's Reduce And Recycle: Curriculum For Solid Waste Awareness. DIANE Publishing, 1991. Flounders. Reducing Waste. Red Chair Press, 2014. Jamieson. A Companion to Environmental Philosophy. John Wiley Sons, 2008. Knight. Plastic Pollution. Raintree, 2013. Ma. Professional Marketing and Advertising Essays and Assignments. Tony Ma, 2014. Miller and Spoolman. 2010. Environmental Science. Cengage Learning, 2010. Munger. Recycling: Can It Be Wrong, When It Feels So Right? 2013. Web 3 March 2015. https://www.cato-unbound.org/2013/06/03/michael-c-munger/recycling-can-it-be-wrong-when-it-feels-so-right Ogunseitan. Green Health: An A-to-Z Guide. SAGE, 2011.Petersons. Green Careers in Energy. Peterson's, 2010.Rachael. The Plastic Plague. 2014. Web 3 March 2015. https://www.teenink.com/hot_topics/environment/article/209463/The-Plastic-Plague/Roza. Reducing Your Carbon Footprint on Vacation. The Rosen Publishing Group, 2008.Terry. Plastic-Free: How I Kicked the Plastic Habit and How You Can Too. Skyhorse Publishing Company, Incorporated, 2012.FLOW for love of water. 2008. Web 3 March 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9aBZP4RnMxwInterlandi, Jeneen. The Race to Buy Up the World's Water. 2010. Web 3 March 2015. https://www.newsweek.com/race-buy-worlds-water-73893

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Toyota Satisfaction Committee Essays - Consumer Behaviour

Toyota Satisfaction Committee Toyota executives lead the customer satisfaction committee at TMS and TMC. * These committees help establish the link between marketing strategies and operational realities of the organization. DEVELOPMENT OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION COMMITTEE * One of Toyota's key indicators of its performance for customer satisfaction is "initial quality" or " the quality percieved by the customer in the first few months of ownership. * The J.D. Power initial survey provides feedback on quality to automobile producers, individual diagnostics, and comparison to competition. Toyota was not ranked number one in customer satisfaction by J.D. Power and found out they had a lot of room for improvemnt. * In 1986, TMS/USA made a strong proposal to TMC/Japan stating that Toyota should be number one. The proposal implied that TMC should improve product quality in the plants to achieve that number one ranking. * In 1987, TMC began to persue the proposal. * The initiative to improve the customer satisfaction came to be referred to as "J1". ESTABLISHMENT OF TMC'S CUSTOMER SATISFACTION COMMITTEE * In 1988 TMC established a committee structure specifically to accomplish the J1 objective for customer satisfaction. There were three subcommittees involved to address specific customer satisfaction issues: product quality, domestic sales and service, and overseas sale and service. INITIAL EFFORT TO IMPROVE QUALITY AT TMC JAPAN * TMC'S initial efforts for the J1 initiative concentrated on the work of the product quality committee. * They set out targets and initiated many improvements, and were to 60 to 70 percent on their way to achieving their targets when the incongruity between their "high" quality improvements and "lower" customer satisfaction rating became obvious. * TMC's product quality committee relied heavily on TMS's voice-of-customer information and surveys of customers. * Some of TMC's responses were "Door has scratch" or "grease on the carpet" but their audits of the vehicles when leaving Japan had no signs of these. The damage must be occurring after they leave Japan. THE J1 BOOMERANG * TMS returned messages to TMC stating product quality was improving, yet damaged vehicles are still arriving at the dealerships. * So TMC/Japan study team followed some shipments to the dealerships and discovered that the damage was indeed occurring after the vehicles left Japan, when the vehicles were the responsibility on TMS. * TMC reflected the proposal back to TMS that TMS itself should make some improvements on the J1 initiative. INITIAL EFFORTS TO IMPROVE QUALITY AT TMS * In 1989 they established a formal program defining standards to accessory installation processes and quality at ports of entry. * Quarterly audits provided feedback and encouragement. * They allowed dealership managers to improve goodwill warranty adjustments on their own. THE TMS CUSTOMER SATISFACTION COMMITTEE * The TMS customer satisfaction committee was established to improve teamwork and communication between all departments by coordinating the development of company-wide satisfaction activities. * The mission of the committee can be summarized in the following chain of events: 1. TO strengthen the dealer network, all TMS, activities, and product quality. 2. TO become number one in customer satisfaction, with millions of satisfied customers and high brand image. 3. TO achieve and maintain sales and volume of 1.5 million annually by retaining former customers and attaining new ones. THE COMMITTEE STRUCTURE * The committee structure is composed of the subcommittee chairmen, Japan staff advisor, and a secretary. The structure is not permanent and the committee maybe replaced if Toyota's priorities change. * The committee promotes communication and continues to oversee the work of the subcommittees, the cross-functional work really gets done in the subcommittees. * The subcommittees have became relatively powerful in this company, as far as getting work done quickly. THE SUBCOMMITTEES * Each major operational area at TMS is represented in a subcommittee made up of members responsible for instituting improvements in customer satisfaction. * These subcommittees include sales and marketing, parts and service, product quality, and Lexus. THE STRUCTURE OF SUBCOMMITTEES * The subcommittees provide a forum for cross-department communication among top-level representatives from diverse operational departments and for coordinated actions to improve customer satisfaction. * Involvement of operational department is key to success of the committee structure. * Another key factor to success of the committee structure is that each subcommittee is chaired by Toyota Vice President execustives. * Executive leaders of the subcommittees are responsible for involving all affected departments in determining problems and developing action plans related to customer satisfaction. Their involvement secures support and commitment for programs that address customer satisfaction issues. INFORMATION FLOW THROUGH SUBCOMMITTEES The subcommittees play a major role in gathering, analyzing, reporting, and distributing actionable